Moreover, the LOS signals often have higher carrier-to-noise ratio (i.e., C/[N.sub.0]) than the NLOS and multipath signals .
Based on the discussions above, the fuzzy calibration logic (FCL) here is designed using three inputs, that is, the azimuth difference [[theta].sub.i] between the received ith satellite and the vehicle, the elevation angle [[gamma].sub.i] of the received ith satellite, and the carrier-to-noise ratio [P.sub.i] (i.e., C/[N.sub.0]) and one output, the scaling coefficient [[mu].sub.i], which is used to adjust the pseudorange measurement noise level.
Figure 4 shows the number of received satellites whose elevation angle and carrier-to-noise ratio are more than 35[degrees] and 30 db-Hz, respectively.
Defining of the carrier-to-noise ratio for every noise source and for the system as one
That requires to be used such a mathematical model of the link, which indicates not only its general noise characteristics (equations (4) and (5)), but also the noise levels of different noise sources, respective carrier-to-noise ratio for every one of them.
Although many of the features and capabilities of SPECTRASYS are not covered in this article, a list of some of the measurements includes adjacent channel frequency, added noise, channel frequency, conducted third-order intermodulation power, cascaded gain, cascaded noise figure, channel noise power, carrier-to-noise ratio
, channel power and desired channel power.
Transmitters and receivers are specified using typical RF parameters, such as carrier-to-noise ratio
, carrier-to-intermodulation products ratio, spurious-free dynamic range and link gain.
The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) output of an ideal bandpass limiter is enhanced if the input CNR is greater than unity, as shown in Figure 6.
10 The amplitude ripple suppression improves as the carrier-to-noise ratio increases.
It provides up-to-the-minute information on sky-view plots, carrier-to-noise ratios
and all trouble indicators.
Sangen's versatile display offers a signal strength bar and the carrier-to-noise ratios
for HD signals.
For equal uplink and downlink carrier-to-noise ratios
(CNR) and a perfect limiter in the earth station, the degradation for a [K.sub.p] of 6.6 [degrees]/dB and 3 [degrees]/dB is 1.7 and 0.4 dB, respectively.