carving


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carving

a figure or design produced by carving stone, wood, etc.

Carving

 

one of the most ancient and popular forms of decorative art; an art that involves the cutting of wood, stone, bone, ganch (a material consisting of gypsum and clay), terra-cotta, and lacquer. Carving is used to embellish buildings and various household articles. In addition, small sculptures are sometimes created by means of carving. A special type of carving is glyptic.

Carving embraces a wide range of forms. Small free-standing sculptures are often produced in accord with certain specifications, such as proper use of the material and the creation of visually identifiable objects. High-relief carving is characterized by a deeply recessed background, which makes possible a multiplanar composition, with prominent forms and sharp contrasts of light and shadow. Flat, or planar, carving consists of a low relief, somewhat resembling a silhouette. There is often additional cutting that more clearly defines the design. One type of planar carving involves the slight rounding out of the edges of the carved design to achieve a soft and rich effect; the background is either lightly carved or not carved at all. Sunken carving is represented by two main techniques: three-edged cutting out and scraping. The former technique is characterized by a geometric design, and the latter by crescent-shaped ornamentation. The decorative expressiveness of sunken carving is based on a combination of graphically clear ornamental forms with chiaroscuro effects. Outlining carving consists of incised lines whose decorative rhythm is clearly indicated against the background. Filigree carving is achieved through the complete removal of the background. It creates a delicate and airy decorative composition. In filigree carving a colored background of a material differing from that of the carving is sometimes used for contrast (such as foil with carved birch bark). In applied carving, the carved design is placed on a smooth surface, creating an even background and eliminating the laborious cutting-out process.

To achieve a vivid decorative effect, different kinds of carving are sometimes combined, for example, applied carving with filigree carving or planar carving with outlining carving. Carving is also often combined with other artistic methods. Metal inlay may be applied to carved sculptures, high-relief carvings may be coated with an easily fusible metal, and outlining carvings may have pigments rubbed into them. To bring out the natural color or texture of a material or to give the material a desired color, carved artifacts are finished in various ways. Wooden articles are lacquered, waxed, stained, gilded, painted, burned, or smoked; bone articles are polished and saturated with paraffin.

The materials used in carving include soft woods (linden, aspen, poplar) and hard woods (birch, maple, beech, box). Stones of varying hardness are used: soft (gypseous stone, talcochlorite, limestone), hard (nephrite, azulite, jasper), and medium hard (malachite, marble). Materials used in bone carving are mainly mammoth, elephant, and walrus tusks. Depending on the specific problem of carving, blocks (monolithic pieces of stone, bones, and wood for sculpture) or plates (level planed boards for utility shelves and panels) are used.

Carving instruments vary. They include knives, axes, sets of chisels, various cutting tools, saws, and different kinds of boring instruments. Labor-intensive operations (sawing, the preparation of semifinished materials, the initial roughing in) are often done with mechanical or electric instruments—pneumatic chisels for stone and drills for bone.

V. A. BORODULIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Chairman of the Trust, Luke Moloney, said: "It has been great to have the opportunity to highlight the rich sandstone carvings in Dumfries during this project and to collaborate with volunteers to research the carved stone decoration of important buildings like Greyfriars' Church and the Queensberry Hotel."
This area produced expert artisans who inherited the art from their ancestors and were carving black stone into beautiful shapes and replicas of artifacts for decades.
Overhanging rocks on mountains are also believed to be a sacred place to have temples or shrines, and though they are rare, carvings and ancient inscriptions of deities in such locations can still be found today.
'You can hire us just for the carving service or you can just buy jamon from us.
Those who originally started as woodcarvers now work abroad in cruise ships and hotels and are into carving ice blocks, fruits and vegetables.
Trujillo was a young boy, his father bought him a basic wood carving kit.
Christian, who works under the name All Carved Out, started carving pumpkins in 2011 but business took off in 2013.
Opthalmologist and amateur historian Dr R Kalaikovan also wrote of his bemusement of the sight of the bicycle carving in Panchavarnaswamy Temple.
"Another of my achievement was carving 18 letters on a lid for which I got into books of world record.
It did not take long for him to realize that a lack of experience did not make carving at the festival any less fun.
It is observed that the carving of this timeless natural vent can be challenging, since functions and aesthetics have equal importance.
Some readers have already been getting into the Halloween spirit by carving out some great pumpkins.