catabolism


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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
The first postoperative energy stores to be used in catabolism are those that consist of:
There was also no evidence of excess tissue catabolism, such as weight loss or hypoalbuminemia, which can be induced by high levels of glucagon or by metastatic cancer alone.
Individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia, combined hyperlipidemia, and/or the metabolic syndrome are characterized by increased plasma apo B-100, chiefly due to reduced catabolism of LDL apo B-100 (3-5).
Blood tests also revealed significantly attenuated post-workout markers of protein catabolism, indicating muscle recovery benefits following exercise in the tart cherry supplement group.
Catabolism can be seen as the deconstructive process.
It has been suggested that minimising the preoperative fasting period, by allowing the consumption of oral carbohydrate-containing clear fluids with or without protein, has a number of clinical advantages, including more stable haemodynamics during induction of anaesthesia, greater glycaemic stability, reduced lean tissue catabolism, and a more positive patient experience.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), key enzymes in tryptophan catabolism, are constitutively expressed in many cancers, which often express one of the two enzymes.
Patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy have been found to have a genetic deficiency of antiquitin (alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase), an enzyme that facilitates cerebral lysine catabolism.
In these obese co-twins, SAT expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, branched-chain, amino acid catabolism, fatty acid oxidation and adipocyte differentiation pathways were downregulated and chronic inflammation upregulated, all of which are metabolic problems that can lead to complications and disease.
Traditionally, it is thought to be an inflammatory reaction to cholesterol crystals released from blood breakdown products during anaerobic catabolism of blood and blood products.
The topics include microbial populations in oral biofilms, bacterial catabolism of salivary substrates, the role of the extracellular polysaccharides matrix in virulent oral biofilms, a holistic view of interspecies bacterial interactions within human dental plaque, biofilms in periodontal health and disease, oral biofilms as a reservoir for extra-oral pathogens: ventilator-associated pneumonia, and probiotics as a possible tool in oral health care.