catabolism


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
..... Click the link for more information.
 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
..... Click the link for more information.
. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
Indeed, we found a positive correlation between homocysteine and the 3-OMD/L-DOPA ratio, an additional variable that we introduced as an index of the methylated catabolism of L-DOPA.
The focus in Cognia Catabolism on pathways and molecular interactions speaks directly to identifying the functional context of individual proteins in the cell," said Dr.
Characterization and engineering of 3-ketosteroid- big up tri, open1-dehydrogenase and 3-ketosteroid-9alpha-hydroxylase inM, neoaurum ATCC 25795 to produce 9alpha-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione through the catabolism of sterols.
Both solutions provide intuitive metabolism data processing with automated structural interpretation, advanced processing options, and templates for analysis of antibody-drug conjugate catabolism, improving efficiency and cost savings for both routine and comprehensive Metabolite ID studies.
Keywords: Anabolism, Catabolism, Degludec, Detemir, Exenatide QW, Glargine, GLP1RA, Insulin, Liraglutide, Metabolism.
However, an extremely high concentration of Mo reverses the trend and can act as an inhibitor in both purine catabolism and other processes.
The energy efficiency of fatty acids' degradation involving the glyoxylate cycle was compared with fatty acids' catabolism in animal cells.
Blood tests also revealed significantly attenuated post-workout markers of protein catabolism, indicating muscle recovery benefits following exercise in the tart cherry supplement group.
The simultaneous effect of lower-body positive pressure on articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response associated with walking has not yet been studied.
Catabolism can be seen as the deconstructive process.
It has been suggested that minimising the preoperative fasting period, by allowing the consumption of oral carbohydrate-containing clear fluids with or without protein, has a number of clinical advantages, including more stable haemodynamics during induction of anaesthesia, greater glycaemic stability, reduced lean tissue catabolism, and a more positive patient experience.