catabolism


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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
The threonine catabolism in rat livers (Table 6), concluded after in vitro incubation of liver tissue, increased significantly following graded dietary threonine supply (0.28 to 0.72% Thr) in 12.0% CP diets and 18.0% CP diets (0.42 to 0.72% Thr).
Indoleamine plasma concentrations were analysed prior to (baseline), during (study day four) and after receiving immunotherapy (study day seven) in order to monitor tryptophan catabolism.
Because these plants were supplied with no Mn and the growth was decreased in all cultivars, the results may have been confounded by inhibited plant growth, which could have had a negative influence on ureide catabolism.
However, even if amino acid oxidation is able to maintain neuronal energy levels, the increased amounts of ammonia released during amino acid catabolism could lead to neuronal cell death because all of the enzymes of the urea cycle needed to detoxify ammonia are not present in neurons or glia.
[ClickPress, Thu Aug 01 2019] Chymosine is an enzyme, which helps in protein catabolism by hydrolysis of certain covalent chemical bonds.
This makes it ideal for athletes to consume before bed time to "preserve lean mass and reduce catabolism."
MEND's nutritional interventions are intended to improve patient outcomes in a number of areas including orthopedics, traumatic brain injury, muscle catabolism, cosmetic surgery and aging.
Together with collaborators from the United States and National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), they found that some cancers potently suppress the catabolism (breakdown) of BCAAs.
One of the clinical features of HAC is the subcutaneous adipose tissue catabolism associated with larger deposition of visceral fat (BEHREND et al., 2012; MICELI et al., 2012).
The HMG-CoA lyase enzyme is localized in the mitochondria and peroxisomes and converts HMG-CoA to acetyl CoA and acetoacetate at the last step of leucine catabolism (Figure 1) (1).
However, we also saw specific molecular signatures that indicate that the adipose tissue is attempting to increase its capacity to store fat following sleep loss, whereas we instead observed signs indicating concomitant breakdown of skeletal muscle proteins in the skeletal muscle, in what's also known as catabolism. We also noted changes in skeletal muscle levels of proteins involved handling blood glucose, and this could help explain why the participants' glucose sensitivity was impaired following sleep loss.
So, with this method we can get useful insights into the effects a drug have on the metabolism of tumour cells, helping us to understand how the disease works and to identify targets for potential new treatments." The paper, entitled 'Accelerated lipid catabolism and autophagy are cancer survival mechanisms under glutaminolysis inhibition', has now been published in Cancer Letters, a highly regarded international medical journal.