catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, the lysosomal indigestion and constipation variant represents the fourth and least common of the manifestations detailed in this article, where the inability to catabolize certain light chains leads to marked lysosomal proliferation, enlargement and formation of atypical, markedly enlarged lysosomes with unusual shapes in proximal tubular cells (Figures 18 and 19).
Animals feeding on high-protein diets probably use dietary protein exclusively for tissue synthesis and catabolize excess dietary protein, carbohydrates, and lipids (Houpt and Houpt 1971).
Fusobacteriumnucleatum catabolizes glutamate whereas zinc inhibits this catabolic reaction and causes inhibition of growth; along with this it also prevents the growth of Prevotellaintermedia by inhibiting the catabolism of aspartyl-aspartate and aspartate.
We found that HO-1 was downregulated in Bach1-overexpressing cells, which plays a crucial role in protection from oxidative stress and apoptosis [22, 23], and HO-1 catabolizes heme into ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, which have antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in vivo [24].
The reticuloendothelial system catabolizes hemoglobin into free iron, globin, and biliverdin, which is rapidly converted to bilirubin.
It may be that the single large dose of vitamin D triggered a short-term "protective" reaction in which the enzyme that catabolizes it was upregulated, "resulting in decreased blood and tissue levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.
Comments: Slimming active ingredient that catabolizes the subcutaneous fat to diminish the orange-peel look of cellulite and improve the contour of the figure.
We are characterizing a tetrachloro-1,4-hydroquinone (TCHQ) dehalogenating enzyme from Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum PCP-1, a gram-positive bacterium that catabolizes pentachlorophenol (PCP).
1990), and this increase in shoot ureide concentration has been associated with decreased activity of an enzyme that catabolizes allantoate, allantoate amidohydrolase (E.
Research by Pariza's team now suggests that CLA may also prove beneficial in treating cachexia, a wasting that occurs when the body catabolizes -- burns up -- muscle in an attempt to meet the high energy demands of fighting certain chronic diseases, such as malaria or cancer.