catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
Formulating diets based on the ideal protein should reduce the amount of excess amino acids that are catabolized (Lopez et al.
In opisthobranch molluscs, serotonin is catabolized through several different pathways (Sloley and Juorio, 1995; Stuart et al.
However, studies have shown that GABA is then catabolized within the mitochondria of plant cells.
It is therefore important to understand how plant folates are catabolized and how they can be stabilized.
As IgG antibodies are catabolized, a period of risk to enhanced infection ensues, followed in turn by the loss of enhancing antibodies and a corresponding decline in risk for DHF/DSS (Figure 5).
LDL is formed from very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and is catabolized primarily by the high affinity LDL receptor.
But urine osmotic load might be increased if woodrats losing body mass catabolized body protein, which can result in higher levels of urea that have to be excreted in the urine (Giesecke et al.
Our biochemical composition data, together with the O: N ratio, provide further evidence that infested unionids were stressed, relative to noninfested unionids, and had catabolized first carbohydrate and then protein energy stores.
Serotonin is catabolized in platelet mitochondria by MAO.
The RER is the ratio of carbon dioxide (C02) produced to the amount of oxygen (02) consumed and serves as a guide to the nutrient mixture being catabolized for energy.
After entry, however, both sugars are converted to glucose-6-phosphate and are thereafter catabolized identically.
Hydrophilic compounds can then be transported into the vacuole by ATP-binding cassette transporters or multidrug resistance-associated proteins and catabolized prior to their expulsion from the vacuole (Kolukisaoglu et al.