catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
The deeper the internalized light chains traverse into the endocytic/processing pathways in the proximal tubules, the lesser the likelihood that they can be completely catabolized. Thus, light chains delivered to the mature lysosomal compartment in the proximal tubules are essentially nondigestible or, at best, only partially catabolized.
These findings suggested that the presence of other easily catabolized carbons could interfere with nicotine degradation by strain TY, but showed less interference with that by strain TW.
Consequently, a portion of ingested selenomethionine is incorporated into proteins in place of methionine, and the selenium so incorporated is biologically inactive until selenomethionine is catabolized. (10)
Background & objectives: Mercaptopurine, azathioprine, and thioguanine, used as antineoplastic agents and immunosuppressants are catabolized by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme, which exhibits genetic polymorphism.
When cells suffer metabolic stress or mitochondrial dysfunction, ATP is catabolized, and metabolic recovery is compromised.
Beta-2-microglobulin is a low-molecular-weight (11.8 kD) protein that is freely filtered at the glomerulus and avidly taken up and catabolized by the proximal tubule (Brenner 2004).
In the kynurenine pathway, tryptophan can be catabolized either by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which is activated by type 1 cytokines, or by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.
Formulating diets based on the ideal protein should reduce the amount of excess amino acids that are catabolized (Lopez et al., 1994).
In opisthobranch molluscs, serotonin is catabolized through several different pathways (Sloley and Juorio, 1995; Stuart et al., 2003, 2004).
However, studies have shown that GABA is then catabolized within the mitochondria of plant cells.
It is therefore important to understand how plant folates are catabolized and how they can be stabilized.
The growth of fish is reduced when fed carbohydrate-deficient diets because other nutrients such as protein are catabolized for energy and to provide metabolic intermediates for the synthesis of other biologically important compounds (Wilson 1994).