As the haloperidol was used to induce the catalepsy
, therefore, there was no standard to compare with the test drugs.
The majority of patients in the sample showed features of decreased motor activity, with extreme negativism or mutism documented in 38 (90.47%) individuals and motoric immobility, including catalepsy
or stupor, identified in 36 (85.71%) individuals (Figure 4).
Therefore administration of curcumin in present study restores the cholinergic functions resulting in attenuation of typical behavior such as catalepsy
and tremors which strengthens the protective role of curcumin against cholinergic and dopaminergic imbalance which has not been studied earlier.
A female patient with melancholic catalepsy
, a form of hysteria
Each main group was also divided into 3 subgroups in order to subject the animals to MK-801 induced hyperlocomotion, apomorphine-induced climbing, and haloperidol-induced catalepsy
Maser, "Tonic immobility: Evolutionary underpinnings of human catalepsy
and catatonia," in Psychopathology: Experimental Models, M.
induced by a blockade of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors was reversed by a concomitant blockade of adenosine A2A receptors in the caudate-putamen of rats," European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Ahmed, "Synthesis of some urea and thiourea derivatives of 3-phenyl/ethyl-2-thioxo-2,3dihydrothiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine and their antagonistic effects on haloperidol-induced catalepsy
and oxidative stress in mice," European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
Typical symptoms of MC include catalepsy
, stupor, mutism, waxy flexibility, negativism, posturing, autonomic dysfunction, rigidity, fever, and muscle injury [4, 6-10].
Whether in Borneo or elsewhere volunteers were in no position to overcome political vicissitudes, social and bureaucratic catalepsy
or the deeper forces that shape societies.
The deficiency of EAG1 only caused a mild hyperactivity and longer-lasting haloperidol-induced catalepsy
but did not affect amphetamine sensitization and withdrawal and the reactivity to apomorphine and haloperidol in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests or to antidepressants in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy
The apparatuses were cleaned with 5% alcohol solution after each behavioral session and all behavioral data were registered and analyzed by the video-trackng software Anymaze (Stoelting, USA), except for the catalepsy
test and the oral movement's evaluation that were manually registered by researchers blind to treatment.