catalytic converter

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catalytic converter:

see internal-combustion engineinternal-combustion engine,
one in which combustion of the fuel takes place in a confined space, producing expanding gases that are used directly to provide mechanical power.
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catalytic converter

[¦kad·əl¦id·ik kən′vərd·ər]
(chemical engineering)
A device that is fitted to the exhaust system of an automotive vehicle and contains a catalyst capable of converting potentially polluting exhaust gases into harmless or less harmful products.

Catalytic converter

An aftertreatment device used for pollutant removal from automotive exhaust. Since the 1975 model year, increasingly stringent government regulations for the allowable emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) have resulted in the use of catalytic converters on most passenger vehicles sold in the United States. The task of the catalytic converter is to promote chemical reactions for the conversion of these pollutants to carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen.

For automotive exhaust applications, the pollutant removal reactions are the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and the reduction of nitrogen oxides. Metals are the catalytic agents most often employed for this task. Small quantities of these metals, when present in a highly dispersed form (often as individual atoms), provide sites upon which the reactant molecules may interact and the reaction proceed.

Two types of catalyst systems, oxidation and three-way, are found in automotive applications. Oxidation catalysts remove only CO and HC, leaving NOx unchanged. Platinum and palladium are generally used as the active metals in oxidation catalysts. Three-way catalysts are capable of removing all three pollutants simultaneously, provided that the catalyst is maintained in a “chemically correct” environment that is neither overly oxidizing nor reducing. In both oxidation and three-way catalyst systems, the production of undesirable reaction products, such as sulfates and ammonia, must be avoided.

Maintaining effective catalytic function over long periods of vehicle operation is often a major problem. Catalytic activity will deteriorate due to two causes, poisoning of the active sites by contaminants, such as lead and phosphorus, and exposure to excessively high temperatures. To achieve efficient emission control, it is thus paramount that catalyst-equipped vehicles be operated only with lead-free fuel and that proper engine maintenance procedures be followed. See Automotive engine

catalytic converter

a device using three-way catalysts to reduce the obnoxious and poisonous components of the products of combustion (mainly oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburnt hydrocarbons) from the exhausts of motor vehicles
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, with the evolution of technology, the automobile industry is shifting towards electric vehicles, which will act as a restraint for the global industrial catalytic converters market.
The automotive catalytic converter market, by material, is divided into three segments: platinum, palladium and rhodium.
But those metals are difficult to extract from the device, and local scrap dealers say they typically won't pay more than about $30 for a used catalytic converter.
The precious metal content of catalytic converters (usually platinum) fetches around 100 [pounds sterling] on the second-hand market.
In the last year, we've noticed an increase in thefts of catalytic converters," Balian said.
In the northern and eastern areas of the United States and in Canada, winter months can be slow for those accumulating catalytic converters.
Environmental Protection Agency standards, catalytic converters would reduce emissions more, Westerholm says.
It brings Wescast into another product line with the addition of the catalytic converter container and takes us a step further in our hot end system strategy.
automaker DaimlerChrysler AG and Volkswagen AG of Germany allowing them to use a catalytic converter that reduces vehicles' nitrogen oxide emissions.
The loan is going to Haldor Topsoe A/S, one of the world's leading companies in the field of catalytic converter development and production.
Catalytic converter panels come in standard rectangular sizes and can even be zoned, though several thermoformers say zoning isn't necessary.