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(kăt'ī`ən), atom or group of atoms carrying a positive charge. The charge results because there are more protons than electrons in the cation. Cations can be formed from a metal by oxidation (see oxidation and reductionoxidation and reduction,
complementary chemical reactions characterized by the loss or gain, respectively, of one or more electrons by an atom or molecule. Originally the term oxidation
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), from a neutral base (see acids and basesacids and bases,
two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water. Properties
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) by protonation, or from a polar compound by ionization. Cationic species include Na+, Mg++, and NH4+. The cations of the transition elementstransition elements
or transition metals,
in chemistry, group of elements characterized by the filling of an inner d electron orbital as atomic number increases.
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 have characteristic colors in water solution. Saltssalt,
chemical compound (other than water) formed by a chemical reaction between an acid and a base (see acids and bases). Characteristics and Classification of Salts

The most familiar salt is sodium chloride, the principal component of common table salt.
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 are made up of cations and anionsanion
, atom or group of atoms carrying a negative charge. The charge results because there are more electrons than protons in the anion. Anions can be formed from nonmetals by reduction (see oxidation and reduction) or from neutral acids (see acids and bases) or polar compounds
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. See ionion,
atom or group of atoms having a net electric charge. Positive and Negative Electric Charges

A neutral atom or group of atoms becomes an ion by gaining or losing one or more electrons or protons.
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A positively charged atom or group of atoms, or a radical which moves to the negative pole (cathode) during electrolysis.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a positively charged ion; an ion that is attracted to the cathode during electrolysis
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(1) (IDL On the Net) See IDL.

(2) (ION) An NVIDIA graphics platform typically used in Atom-based netbooks. See Intel Atom.

(3) An ion is an atom with fewer or greater electrons than normal as a result of radiation or chemical reaction. A positive ion, called a "cation" (pronounced "cat-eye-en"), has one or more electrons stripped out, which means it has fewer electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nucleus. A negative ion, called an "anion" (pronounced "an-eye-en"), is an atom that has one or more electrons forcibly added.

Cations, Anions, Cathodes and Anodes
Although one might think cations are in cathodes and anions are in anodes, the opposite is true. When the terms were coined, the concept was that positive cations were attracted to the negative cathode, and negative anions were attracted to the positive anode.

Batteries Contain Positive and Negative Ions
In a battery, there are positive ions on one side and negative ions on the other. When a conductor is placed in between to complete the circuit, the electrons flow from the negative ions to the positive side where they join the positive ions. See ion deposition.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Eosinophil cationic protein exists in various body fluids: serum, plasma, nasal lavage fluid, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and urine (5, 6).
When an inkjet receptive coating contains fumed alumina, its cationic surface interacts strongly with anionic pigment particles by electrostatic forces, trapping pigment in place and affording high saturation and minimum mottling (Figure 3B and 4B).
As cationic agent, the Stearylamine (Octadecylamine, Fluka) was chosen.
Quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, for example, these surfactants have been used in liposomes mixture to form cationic liposomes which can transfer DNA into cells through fusion witch the cell membranes, or to form spontaneously complexes with DNA and RNA [12].
Common cationic polyacrylamides produced industrially Include copolymers of acrylamide (1) with AETAC (6), MAETAC (7), MAPTAC (9), or DADMAC (10) (Figures 7 and 2).
Mirage Inks has been granted ISEGA certification For several of its Quartz cationic UV ink systems for use in indirect food contact applications.
Structural information of cationic peptides may help in designing novel synthetic drugs against super bugs.
The addition of Ti, Zr, Al alkoxides (6-9), or relatively water-tolerant Lewis acids such as boron tri-fluoride diethyl etherate (10), (11) (B[F.sub.3]O[E.sub.[t.sub.2]]) to a sol of GPTMS was found to act simultaneously as a catalyst for the sol-gel polycondensation of the alkoxysilyl functions and also as a co-initiator of the cationic ring-opening polymerization of the epoxy functions.
Objectives of the current study were 1) to compare and evaluate the efficacy of feeding cows prepartum a cationic diet with a reduced concentration of K or an anionic diet during a 30 d dry period and 2) to compare the results of giving a 30 d dry period to that of cows fed and managed in a more traditional two-phase nutritional feeding program and given a 60 d dry period.
They are commonly added in the form of colloidal particles, stabilized by cationic starch.
Liquid potpourri, warmed over candles and electric gizmos, contains toxic (we're not making this up) cationic detergent and essential oils.
* Low molecular weight cationic polyamines and polyamides can positively impact Yankee dryer adhesion by adhering the sheet to the dryer and tightening up the sheet draw.