Corresponding branches stemmed not only from the caudal
communicating artery (most frequently two or three in number), but also from the rostral part of the basilar artery (usually represented by a double blood vessel).
Two types of caudal
regression syndromes have been described: (2)
Tramadol have been used as an adjuvant in axillary brachial plexus nerve block,  caudal
anaesthesiat [8,9] and also in dorsal penile nerve block  to extend the duration of post-operative analgesia.
Subsequently, a hard spine formed before anal fin rays between 5.12 mm to 5.35 mm (15-16 DPH) from the cephalic to caudal
The single shot caudal
epidural block is associated with short duration of analgesia which is the main disadvantage of this technique.
It was calculated using the number of groups, mean difference of the caudal
effectiveness scores and duration of analgesia, standard deviation, and Z power table.
A 4.0x2.0cm septic thrombus was reported in the hepatic portion of the caudal
vena cava (Figure 1A).
melanura) based on a supposed slope difference of a caudal
stripe extending from the caudal
peduncle to around 1/3 body length.
Our objective was to investigate the duration and quality of postoperative analgesia in patients, who were subject to caudal
block technique, dorsal penile nerve block or who were administered subcutaneous morphine.
After confirming the epidural space 80 milligram (2ml) of methyl prednisolone mixed either with 0.25% bupivacaine, 0.2 ml/kg in group A or 0.125% bupivacaine, 0.4 ml/kg in group B was injected into the caudal