However, as we moved caudally
, we observed that the tumor had extended toward the dens, which necessitated a ventral access that would not be possible with a posterolateral approach alone.
1); it begins on the head and proceeds dorsally and caudally
It is conically shaped with the apical hub pointing cranially, and 6 stainless steel legs radiating caudally
The spinal cord ends at the level of the L1-L2 disk space, with the nerve roots extending caudally
in an enclosed sac known as the dural sac (DS).
Both outgrowths elongate medially and caudally
to form the thymopharyngeal ducts.
The blunt incision used for the endoscopic examination was extended cranially and caudally
In lateral view, aedeagal shaft strongly sinuated, apical 1/3 of shaft angled as right angle, then directed caudally
8] The proximal extent of the PLND is the common iliac artery, and continues caudally
to include internal and external iliac templates and obturator fossa.
As the scanning is directed caudally
, the carotid artery separates from the internal jugular and subclavian veins, and the right brachiocehalic vein appears.
Fibrolipomas of the filum terminale are usually more caudally
located and generally much smaller.
Adenomas can expand cephalad into the suprasellar cistern and compress the optic chiasm and optic nerves, caudally
to erode the sella turcia, and laterally to compress or invade the cavernous sinuses.
Depression of the orbital roof, which forms the floor of the frontal fossa, can also cause the brain to be caudally