First, the study confirmed that an initial taste of a high-sugar food increased the desire for more as measured by neural response in the caudate
region, which has been implicated in reward valuation, as well as regions implicated in related processes such as attention (precuneus).
lobectomy, which in some cases was independently performed of the above-listed surgical procedures, was frequently applied in groups B and C and associated with a very significant survival benefit (>5- vs.
[10, 11] The CT brain shows unilateral hyperdensity of the putamen and/or caudate
For the caudate
nucleus (CN) connectivity, the seed region of interest was placed on the CN, which is isolated by the adjacent structures (medial boundary: the lateral ventricle; lateral boundary: the anterior limb of the internal capsule) (1).
Among the brain-structure measurements, we focused on basal ganglia volumes (including caudate
, putamen, and globus pallidum), based on previous findings in the BREATHE sample (Mortamais et al.
MRI axial cuts showing hyperintensity in areas of the cortex (cortical ribboning) and in caudate
nucleus at the DWI sequence.
However, the scan did demonstrate mildly increased density within the right basal ganglia, involving the caudate
and lentiform nuclei and to a lesser extent globus pallidus (Figure 1).
The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical gray nuclei, which include the dorsal striatum [i.e., caudate
nucleus (CAU) and putamen (PUT)], ventral striatum [including the nucleus accumbens (NA)], globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and have complex anatomical and functional projections in the brain (1,2).
Compared with the control group, patients with JME showed significantly decreased GM volumes of regions in the cerebellum (bilateral anterior of cerebellum and vermis), the right thalamus, bilateral caudate
, part of the cerebral cortex (the orbital superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus), the right hippocampus, and the left putamen (Table 2,p < 0.05, FDR corrected) (Figure 1).
An engorged caudate
vein was identified, connecting to the IVC via a small orifice.
Leaves elliptic and oblong-elliptic, 34.5-60.0 x 6-7.4 cm, apex caudate
, base attenuate, margin entire, abaxial dull green, adaxial dark green with slightly corrugated.
Neuroimaging research has also elucidated areas of the brain that are highly active during facial mimicry, particularly in areas of the basal ganglia (e.g., caudate
nucleus) and of the mirror neuron system (e.g., inferior frontal operculum) [25, 26].