caudillo


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Related to caudillo: El Caudillo

caudillo

(kôdēl`yō Span. kouthē`yō), [Span.,= military strongman], type of South American political leader that arose with the 19th-century wars of independence. The first caudillos were often generals who, leading private armies, used their military might to achieve power in the newly independent states. Many were large landowners (hacendados) who sought to advance their private interests. They had in common military skill and a personal magnetism capable of commanding the allegiance of the masses. Caudillos were not associated with particular ideologies or political philosophies. Although they often began their career by opposing the oligarchy, they almost invariably became oligarchs and rarely upset the existing social order. In power, their authority was largely unchecked. Caudillos, or caudilhos in Portuguese-speaking Brazil, left their mark on the histories of all South American nations. Well-known caudillos were Juan Manuel de RosasRosas, Juan Manuel de
, 1793–1877, Argentine dictator, governor of Buenos Aires prov. (1829–32, 1835–52). As a boy he served under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders of the Rio de la Plata (1806–7).
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 and Juan Facundo QuirogaQuiroga, Juan Facundo
, 1790–1835, Argentine caudillo. One of the most brutal of the early gaucho chieftains, he was called el tigre de los llanos (the tiger of the plains).
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 in Argentina, Gabriel García MorenoGarcía Moreno, Gabriel
, 1821–75, president of Ecuador (1861–65, 1869–75), b. Guayaquil. A conservative with deep religious convictions, he gradually came to believe that Ecuadorans could only be united as a nation through their common Roman Catholic
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 in Ecuador, Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana and Porfirio DíazDíaz, Porfirio
, 1830–1915, Mexican statesman, a mestizo, christened José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz. He gained prominence by supporting Benito Juárez and the liberals in the War of the Reform and in the war against Emperor Maximilian and the
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 in Mexico, and Rafael Leonidas Trujillo MolinaTrujillo Molina, Rafael Leonidas
, 1891–1961, president of the Dominican Republic (1930–38, 1942–52). Trained by U.S. marines during U.S. occupation of the country, he was army chief in the presidency of Horacio Vásquez, whom he ousted in 1930.
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 in the Dominican Republic. In Spain, General Francisco FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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 gave himself the title of el Caudillo, using the term literally without its disparaging connotations.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Caudillo

 

(1) The official title of Generalissimo F. Franco, the former head of state of Spain. The caudillo is invested with virtually unlimited powers of supreme governmental, political, and military leadership (“the caudillo is responsible before god and history”).

(2) In several Latin American countries, the caudillo is thehead of state, ruling as a personal dictator.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caudillo Franco executed dozens of individuals who resisted the Spanish-German-Italian forces, earning for him the admiration of Hitler and Mussolini and the horror of the majority of people in the territory of Spain.
Ils chantaient le [beaucoup moins que]Cara al Sol[beaucoup plus grand que], l'hymne des Phalanges fascistes fondees par Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, lui-meme enterre non loin du Caudillo.
Identificar las continuidades que hay entre El caudillo y La senda, asi como dar cuenta de la manera en que los fragmentos de prosa filosofica pugnan por abrirse paso en la superficie narrativa de la novela, nos enfrenta con una obra acaso mas integrada de lo que pareceria a primera vista.
En una compilacion de sus obras de 1921, por ejemplo, el payador anarquista Edmundo Montagne celebro al "gaucho de antes" como precursor de la democracia, con "su continua montonera" dirigida contra toda opresion; dedico tambien un poema de anoranzas por las luchas de un "caudillo" no identificado (MONTAGNE 1921).
The corruption continues until the caudillo is above the law.
Which 20th century dictator was known as 'El Caudillo'?