, which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 nm) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells and adipocytes.
For instance, Clathrin-coated Pit-mediated receptor internalization (caveolae
pathway), at least in some cases, has been reported to traffic ADC to the cells.
The eNOS is located in the caveolae
and T-tubes, whereas the nNOS is located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Filipin (caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor) was used to show that transferrin-PLGA NPs were endocytosed via caveolae
Cholesterol Is Actively Consumed in Cholesterol Efflux from the Cells.
are plasma membrane microdomains, composed by cholesterol, sphingolipids, and different coat proteins named caveolins, considered anchor points to molecules (in this context, insulin receptor and GLUT4), facilitating their interaction, in order to activate cell signaling and transport [91-93].
Pabelick, "Inflammation, caveolae
and CD38-mediated calcium regulation in human airway smooth muscle," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol.
Rapid insulindependent endocytosis of the insulin receptor by caveolae
in primary adipocytes.
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a 22-kD protein of 178 amino acids and a member of the caveolin family (Cav-1, 2, and 3), is the highly conserved and essential component of caveolae
Oxidative stress generated by the Hhcy and LDL ox (ROS and carbonyl adducts) reduced the availability of NO and alter structures and functions of caveolae
, which are transcellular transport system of various molecules, including amino acids (Met), in endothelial cells .