Immunohistochemically, the cells lining the cavernous
space and vacuolated epithelioid cells are positive for vimentin, CD31, CD34, and factor-VIII-related antigen, supporting the endothelial nature [1-3, 5, 7-9, 11, 12, 15].
Following initiation of heparin infusion, a CT venogram (CTV) confirmed the presence of thrombosis along with a filling defect in the L cavernous
sinus (Figure 3).
Various mass lesions in the brainstem, such as primary and metastatic tumors, and cavernous
malformations (Figure 3B), may involve the nuclei and/or the fascicular fibers of CN V (2, 15).
A follow-up MRI in patient 5 after three months showed decreased signal intensity and enhancement of the affected cavernous
malformations may represent as focal area of decreased signal density, "black dots".
malformation (CCM), also known as cavernous
angioma, is a type of vascular malformation in the central nervous system.
It is usually painful and rigid erection, characterised by little or no cavernous
blood flow resulting in abnormal (dark red) cavernous
blood gases (hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis) (3).
Computed tomography (CT) and CT angiogram revealed a destructive skull base mass with an associated giant probable pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous
segment of the left internal carotid artery.
The lesion was resected and the diagnosis of cavernous
type hemangioma was confirmed by pathology studies.
(7) Of the remaining cases, 26 (11%) displayed acute ischemic necrosis and 69 (30%) were diagnosed as cavernous
degeneration, a morphologic variant of ION (see below).
fistulas (CCFs) develop as a shunt between the cavernous
sinus and carotid arterial system .
The histopathological examination revealed an intramuscular cavernous
hemangioma (Figure 4).