caving


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caving

the sport of climbing in and exploring caves

Caving

 

(in mining), natural or artificially induced disruption of the stability of a rock mass. In underground mining, caving takes place as the collapse of blocks and pieces of rock into mine workings, detachment of sections of the roof rock, or shifting of an entire undermined rock stratum. Natural caving over a large area (roof sagging) is caused by dynamic loading on the mine workings and by air shocks within them. The harmful consequences of caving are prevented or minimized by the installation of supports in the workings and by controlling the behavior of the wall rock. An efficient and economical method of controlling rock pressure in long stoping faces (longwalls) is complete or partial roof caving.

The parameters of roof caving—the rate of caving of the immediate roof, which is brought about by the removal or shifting of the supports, and the rate of caving of the main roof—are determined by the properties of the rock, the depth, and the engineering and technological conditions of the operations. In the case of strong roof rocks that tend to overhang, artificially induced caving by means of explosives, hydraulic working of the rock mass, and other methods must be used. In underground mining of ore deposits, the principle of caving ores and surrounding rock in certain mining systems is the basis of mineral extraction technology. The principles governing rock caving in underground mining are studied for the purpose of designing mining systems and improving methods for the design of support and regulations for the protection of excavations and above-ground structures. In open-pit mining, the banks and rims of quarries are caved. They are made stable by the choice of the proper height and slope angle of the banks and rims, and also by anchoring the slopes, taking into account the structure, physicochemical properties, and loading. Under favorable conditions, self-caving of banks is used for separating rock from the rock mass.

V. V. ZHUKOV

caving

[′kāv·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
A mining procedure, used when the surface is expendable, in which the ore body is undercut and allowed to fall, breaking into small pieces that are recovered by passages (drifts) driven for that purpose; sublevel caving, block caving, and top slicing are examples.
(petroleum engineering)
Collapsing of the walls of a wellbore. Also known as sloughing.
References in periodicals archive ?
A 2hour spelunking tour lets you explore larger chambers with still-growing helictites (twisting soda straws that look like ramen noodles); bring lights and caving clothes.
I usually use the word caving to describe the adventure of going underground.
A South Wales Caving Club member said yesterday that military activity had been noted in a number of caves on the Brecon Beacons and in the hills around Llangatwg.
Students enrolled in PED171 receive nine hours of class instruction before participating in a caving trip.
Welcome to the woolly world of caving, a sport long romanticized by adventurous teens and scientists, too.
Brainstorming with the agencies and organizations that are invested in the care of caves for water quality and diversity of ecologies, we identified three content goals: how caves are formed, what caves are like inside, and the skills needed for caving to protect the cave environment.
One guide remembers: "A teenager's response on her first-ever caving trip (after going) back into the cave alone to sit in the darkness ...