caving


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caving

the sport of climbing in and exploring caves

Caving

 

(in mining), natural or artificially induced disruption of the stability of a rock mass. In underground mining, caving takes place as the collapse of blocks and pieces of rock into mine workings, detachment of sections of the roof rock, or shifting of an entire undermined rock stratum. Natural caving over a large area (roof sagging) is caused by dynamic loading on the mine workings and by air shocks within them. The harmful consequences of caving are prevented or minimized by the installation of supports in the workings and by controlling the behavior of the wall rock. An efficient and economical method of controlling rock pressure in long stoping faces (longwalls) is complete or partial roof caving.

The parameters of roof caving—the rate of caving of the immediate roof, which is brought about by the removal or shifting of the supports, and the rate of caving of the main roof—are determined by the properties of the rock, the depth, and the engineering and technological conditions of the operations. In the case of strong roof rocks that tend to overhang, artificially induced caving by means of explosives, hydraulic working of the rock mass, and other methods must be used. In underground mining of ore deposits, the principle of caving ores and surrounding rock in certain mining systems is the basis of mineral extraction technology. The principles governing rock caving in underground mining are studied for the purpose of designing mining systems and improving methods for the design of support and regulations for the protection of excavations and above-ground structures. In open-pit mining, the banks and rims of quarries are caved. They are made stable by the choice of the proper height and slope angle of the banks and rims, and also by anchoring the slopes, taking into account the structure, physicochemical properties, and loading. Under favorable conditions, self-caving of banks is used for separating rock from the rock mass.

V. V. ZHUKOV

caving

[′kāv·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
A mining procedure, used when the surface is expendable, in which the ore body is undercut and allowed to fall, breaking into small pieces that are recovered by passages (drifts) driven for that purpose; sublevel caving, block caving, and top slicing are examples.
(petroleum engineering)
Collapsing of the walls of a wellbore. Also known as sloughing.
References in periodicals archive ?
When Huddersfield Caving Group was set up in the mid 1990s, the advertisement read: "Very small group of friends ready to welcome people for walking, camping, cycling, caving.
Today, the club aspect has almost disappeared, but an informal group of caving enthusiasts still meets up occasionally.
The Huddersfield Caving Group existed officially between 1995 and 2006.
6 miles), qualifying it for Major Cave status and putting it on the world caving map.
Damian, in fact, has grown fond of photography on Foundation trips, and his photos appear in major caving journals like "NSS News" and "Descent.
The combination of block caving on the rehabilitated production lines at the 70 ml and of front caving at the 85 ml has been determined to be the quickest and most economical way of accessing higher grade ore from the Central block.
They wore a real caving helmet and explored how it felt to move through restricted and fragile spaces of caves, but above ground and in daylight.