Most common error during access cavity preparation
was "gouging" ([approximately equal to]68%), related to instrumentation was "ledge" ([approximately equal to]47%), and during obturation was "voids" ([approximately equal to]41%).
The anatomic variations in the apex of the root canal, instrumentations used to prepare the retrograde cavity (ultrasound tips and burs, among others), method of cavity preparation
, filler material used therein, and isolation from the periapical tissues are factors related to successful outcomes (12, 24).
When this transition occurs, it is imperative for the dental assistant to be prepared and knowledgeable in specific areas such as operator positioning, mirror skills, use of a fulcrum, dental anatomy, cavity preparations
, adaptation of instruments, and application of dental materials.
Apart from being in a palatal direction, the extension of root dilaceration from the coronal portion of the root along the root apex is another interesting finding in this case, which was the main cause for the labial root perforation during access cavity preparation
from a lingual approach.
Thermal trauma may be induced by cavity preparation
, exothermic polymerization reactions of resin-based restorative materials , and exothermic acid-base setting reactions of glass ionomer-based restorative materials  or from various light sources used for curing restorative materials [4, 5] and may eventually damage pulp tissue irreversibly if it is not controlled [6, 7].
This experiment determined the time-course of the dental pulp response to the cavity preparation
to determine the optimal interval to conduct the pharmacological treatments (Experiment II).
Increasing the crosshead speed influenced fracture resistance and the failure mode of human maxillary premolars with a MOD cavity preparation
restored with composite.
Subjects' self reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anesthetic administration during access cavity preparation
and pulp extirpation.
Pulpal injury during cavity preparation
remains an important concern, since heat generation during operative procedures can be considered one of the main sources of trauma .
traditionally can be performed based on mechanical and biological principles using nonrotatory and rotatory instruments.