cellular telephone

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cellular telephone


cellular radio,

telecommunications system in which a portable or mobile radio transmitter and receiver, or "cellphone," is linked via microwavemicrowave,
electromagnetic wave having a frequency range from 1,000 megahertz (MHz) to 300,000 MHz, corresponding to a wavelength range from 300 mm (about 12 in.) to 1 mm (about 0.04 in.). Like light waves, microwaves travel essentially in straight lines.
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 radio frequencies to base transmitter and receiver stations that connect the user to a conventional telephone network. The geographic region served by a cellular system is subdivided into areas called cells. Each cell has a central base station and two sets of assigned transmission frequencies; one set is used by the base station, and the other by cellphones. To prevent radio interference, each cell uses frequencies different from those used by its surrounding cells, but cells sufficiently distant from each other can use the same frequencies. When a cellphone leaves one cell and enters another, the telephone call is transferred from one base station and set of transmission frequencies to the next using a computerized switching system.

A camera phone is a cellular phone that also has picture taking and often video recording capabilities; the pictures and videos may be sent to another cellular phone or to a computer. Most cellphones are now so equipped, and also have the ability to send text messages. Further advances in digital technology and microelectronics have led to the development of so-called smartphones, which typically also include e-mail programs, Internet browsers, personal information managers, music and video players, alarm clocks, calculators, games, voice memo recorders, e-book readers, and many other specialized software applications, or apps. Such phones typically have touch screens for accessing data and content, and are usually capable of accessing the Internet through a wireless network connection as well as through the cellular telephone system. These features have allowed smartphones to replace personal digital assistants, portable music players, and other portable electronic devices, and also supplant portable computers in many uses. The increasing size of smartphone screens has blurred most of the distinctions between the largest smartphones and smallest computer tablets, though the largest smartphones can be awkward when used for making telephone calls. The software needed for smartphone programs can make the devices vulnerable to software viruses.

The first cellular telephone system began operation in Tokyo in 1979, and the first U.S. system began operation in 1983 in Chicago. In many countries with inadequate wire-based telephone networks, cellular telephone systems have provided a means of more quickly establishing a national telecommunications network.

Cellphones emit nonionizing radiation, and there have been concerns expressed about whether they might cause cancer. Studies on the subject that have found evidence of increased cancer rates have been criticized for having methodological flaws. Although a World Health Organization panel concluded in 2011 that cellular phones were "possibly carcinogenic," that finding was criticized by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute and undermined by a large Danish study published in 2011.

References in periodicals archive ?
Calypso plans to deliver a great deal of cellular phones to multiple clients that have placed their trust in us by placing multi million dollar purchase orders," says Alfredo Sarrazin, Vice President of Sales of Calypso Wireless Inc.
Mike" Frischkorn, president of TIA, which represents the manufacturers of telecommunications equipment, including cellular phones.
We at Servinova are excited in launching the Calypso C1250i Smart Cellular phone.
26 /PRNewswire/ -- In an attempt to quiet concerns about the safety of portable cellular phones, Centel Cellular Co.
Because they are positioned closer to the cellular phone user than traditional sites, microcells can improve existing indoor coverage and offer indoor coverage where none existed before.
With an estimated 800 millions cellular phones to be sold world-wide in 2005 (estimated by Frost & Sullivan), this order is an forward step of Calypso entering the mobile market with the ASNAP(TM) patented technology U.
Motorola is the only cellular manufacturer in the world to offer this feature and the MicroTAC Ultra Lite is the first cellular phone commercially available in the United States able to offer a vibration alert mode.
With over 700 millions cellular phones sold word wide in 2005 (estimated by Frost & Sullivan), this order is just the beginning of Calypso entering the mobile market with the ASNAP(TM) patented technology providing value to consumer and mobile operators," says Alfredo Sarrazin, Vice President of Sales of Calypso Wireless Inc.
March 30 /PRNewswire/ -- Bell Atlantic Mobile Systems today announced a pair of services designed to give its customers greater utility and value from their cellular phones.
Since more than 50 million people are expected to use cellular phones by the year 2000, teaching proper cellular phone skills to young drivers is timely, according to Larry Hitchcock, driver education coordinator for the Bellevue School District.
We already have a strong retail presence through a number of retailers who offer PC software and cellular phone accessories, as well as growing online sales.
United is offering the cellular phone rentals in conjunction with Road and Show Cellular, America's leader in cellular phone rentals.

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