cellular telephone


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Related to cellular telephone: Cellular radio

cellular telephone

or

cellular radio,

telecommunications system in which a portable or mobile radio transmitter and receiver, or "cellphone," is linked via microwavemicrowave,
electromagnetic wave having a frequency range from 1,000 megahertz (MHz) to 300,000 MHz, corresponding to a wavelength range from 300 mm (about 12 in.) to 1 mm (about 0.04 in.). Like light waves, microwaves travel essentially in straight lines.
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 radio frequencies to base transmitter and receiver stations that connect the user to a conventional telephone network. The geographic region served by a cellular system is subdivided into areas called cells. Each cell has a central base station and two sets of assigned transmission frequencies; one set is used by the base station, and the other by cellphones. To prevent radio interference, each cell uses frequencies different from those used by its surrounding cells, but cells sufficiently distant from each other can use the same frequencies. When a cellphone leaves one cell and enters another, the telephone call is transferred from one base station and set of transmission frequencies to the next using a computerized switching system.

A camera phone is a cellular phone that also has picture taking and often video recording capabilities; the pictures and videos may be sent to another cellular phone or to a computer. Most cellphones are now so equipped, and also have the ability to send text messages. Further advances in digital technology and microelectronics have led to the development of so-called smartphones, which typically also include e-mail programs, Internet browsers, personal information managers, music and video players, alarm clocks, calculators, games, voice memo recorders, e-book readers, and many other specialized software applications, or apps. Such phones typically have touch screens for accessing data and content, and are usually capable of accessing the Internet through a wireless network connection as well as through the cellular telephone system. These features have allowed smartphones to replace personal digital assistants, portable music players, and other portable electronic devices, and also supplant portable computers in many uses. The increasing size of smartphone screens has blurred most of the distinctions between the largest smartphones and smallest computer tablets, though the largest smartphones can be awkward when used for making telephone calls. The software needed for smartphone programs can make the devices vulnerable to software viruses.

The first cellular telephone system began operation in Tokyo in 1979, and the first U.S. system began operation in 1983 in Chicago. In many countries with inadequate wire-based telephone networks, cellular telephone systems have provided a means of more quickly establishing a national telecommunications network.

Cellphones emit nonionizing radiation, and there have been concerns expressed about whether they might cause cancer. Studies on the subject that have found evidence of increased cancer rates have been criticized for having methodological flaws. Although a World Health Organization panel concluded in 2011 that cellular phones were "possibly carcinogenic," that finding was criticized by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute and undermined by a large Danish study published in 2011.

References in periodicals archive ?
The detectives working the New Breed case believed the death was related to their investigation after learning that they had encountered one of the two shooting victims earlier while investigating the cellular telephone cloning.
One alternative to both cellular telephones and citizens band is amateur radio.
For those in Southern California who are looking for more than just basic telephone service, PacTel Mobile Access is offering call forwarding, call waiting and three-way calling to its cellular telephone customers.
Students will select standard cellular telephones first for security and safety
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Phones covered by the accord include those for the ''cdmaone'' phone service, which the Cellular Telephone group plans to offer across Japan from next spring.
So far, Mitnick has pleaded guilty to the only crimes he has been charged with: illegal possession of cellular telephone codes and violating supervised release from a 1989 hacking conviction.
Dataphant is the proprietor of the industry's first database capable of reverse look-ups on cellular telephone numbers, enabling law enforcement, security professionals and government agencies the ability to identify a person's name and address by querying a cellular telephone number.
In addition to community watch groups, crime victims and witnesses, elderly people in isolated areas and residents of areas plagued by hate crimes are eligible to apply for a cellular telephone.
LocatePLUS CEO Jon Latorella stated, "Our acquisition of Voice Power Technology provides us with unprecedented access to a national cellular telephone database.
Until now, analog cellular telephone systems have provided poor quality for data transmission.
During the interview, Hamby noted that current products and services available for purchase include prepaid cellular telephone recharge, telephone calling cards, home dial tone, roadside assistance, discounted prescription drug cards and MasterCard transactions.

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