In organizations where there is a high level of centralization
, decision-making authority sits with the top management of the organization (Hage & Aiken, 1967), and subordinates do not have the opportunity to take part in decision making (Menon & Varadarajan, 1992).
In their models, the SBC of local governments is caused by positive externalities in the provision of local public goods, whereas in our model, the SBC of local governments is caused by debt centralization
This can be considered as the birth of centralization
of the neuronal network on the path to the complex brains of vertebrates," underscores Prof.
The Economy Ministry proposes centralization
of the management of state-owned shares on the basis of the LPA.
But would Europe follow the French model of centralization
, or would it follow a republicanized version of the federative polity of Christendom?
In practice, perhaps the most mentioned case of decentralized corruption is that of postcommunist Russia, while horizontal centralization
was more prevalent in the Soviet Union where there was one agency charging bribes (see Schleifer and Vishny 1993).
Optimized treasury solutions exist in effective, efficient technologies that help achieve financial transparency, control and centralization
Improve oversight through annual reviews of franchise fee payments and eventually consider centralization
of collections with the Office of Finance.
It's all about centralization
," says Martin Cox, Technical Services Manager, Planning and Development at BOC Edwards, which is in the midst of phasing out aging Exchange servers in remote offices and centralizing services at its Wilmington, Mass.
Panzer characterizes the approach to the categories as "modified centralization
," falling somewhere between a command-and-control system and complete decentralization.
People who resist authority, who defend the rights of the individual, who try in a period of increasing totalitarianism and centralization
to reclaim these rights--this is the true left in the United States.
To help achieve centralization
of control, many IT departments have implemented KVM (keyboard, video, and mouse) switching systems, which evolved from the impracticality of having separate keyboards, monitors and mice for each system within a server room.