centrifugal pump

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centrifugal pump

[‚sen′trif·i·gəl ′pəmp]
(mechanical engineering)
A machine for moving a liquid, such as water, by accelerating it radially outward in an impeller to a surrounding volute casing.

Centrifugal pump

A machine for moving fluid by accelerating it radially outward. More fluid is moved by centrifugal pumps than by all other types combined. Centrifugal pumps consist basically of one or more rotating impellers in a stationary casing which guides the fluid to and from the impeller or from one impeller to the next in the case of multistage pumps. Impellers may be single suction or double suction. Additional essential parts of all centrifugal pumps are (1) wearing surfaces or rings, which make a close-clearance running joint between the impeller and the casing to minimize the backflow of fluid from the discharge to the suction; (2) the shaft, which supports and drives the impeller; and (3) the stuffing box or seal, which prevents leakage between shaft and casing.

The rotating impeller imparts pressure and kinetic energy to the fluid pumped. A collection chamber in the casing converts much of the kinetic energy into head or pressure energy before the fluid leaves the pump. A free passage exists at all times through the impeller between the discharge and inlet side of the pump. Rotation of the impeller is required to prevent back-flow or draining of fluid from the pump. Because of this, only special forms of centrifugal pumps are self-priming. Most types must be filled with liquid, or primed, before they are started.

Every centrifugal pump has its characteristic curve, which is the relation between capacity or rate of flow and pressure or head against which it will pump. At zero pressure-difference, maximum capacity is obtained, but without useful work. As resistance to flow external to the pump increases, capacity decreases until, at a high pressure, flow ceases entirely. This is called shut-off head and again no useful work is done. Between these extremes, capacity and head vary in a fixed relationship at constant rpm. When the required head exceeds that practical for a single-stage pump, several stages are employed. Multistage pumps range from two-stage pumps to pumps built with as many as 20 or 30 stages for high lifts from relatively small-diameter wells. See Pump, Pumping machinery

centrifugal pump

centrifugal pump
A pump in which the pressure is imparted to the fluid by centrifugal force produced by a rotating impeller.

centrifugal pump

Any pump that uses a high-speed impeller to throw the fluid outward by centrifugal action.
References in periodicals archive ?
Minggao, Modern Design Methods for Centrifugal Pumps, China Machine Press, Beijing, China, 2013, in Chinese.
Zhou [4] simulated the internal flow within three types of centrifugal pumps with 4 straight blades and 12 twisted ones, in two scales.
According to FMI, the industrial segment accounts for the highest demand for centrifugal pumps, representing nearly 67% revenue share in 2015.
During the study, eight centrifugal pumps of various designs were analyzed (WinCAPS 2011; Wilo-Select 2010).
The mechanical characteristics of the pump impeller are significant for the working behaviors of centrifugal pumps. During the working process of a centrifugal pump, the periodic hydraulic loads imposed on the pump will lead to the dynamic deformation of the impeller and impeller shaft.
Apollo produces centrifugal pumps and system equipment for the oil refining, gas processing, chemical and petrochemical, power generation and water utilities along with offshore production and liquid gas transportation sectors.
The program will also discuss the basic parts and operation of several types of rotary positive displacement pumps; fundamental operating principles of single-stage and multistage centrifugal pumps and operation of centrifugal pumps.
Circulation of liquid through the centrifugal pump and SPA circuit allows high-performance centrifugal pumps to be primed faster and to greater lift suction than positive displacement diaphragm pumps.
The recent acquisition by Wilden Pumps of Griswold Pump Company, the US-based manufacturer of centrifugal pumps, has created a new business opportunity for AxFlow UK Limited.
trash pumps and centrifugal pumps. The new MP 34, MP 66, MP 36 and MP 56 pumps are the latest addition to the company's portfolio, which is now more focused on the U.S.
Application Data: Applications for the PumPac 8000 Series include centrifugal pumps, large vertical electric motors, compressors, centrifuges, and others subject to thrust loads while operating at relatively high speeds.
TRA[R] 400 centrifugal pumps are designed for high-purity and sanitary fluid transfer.