For calculation of accuracy there are four classes designed: normal tissue (NT), centrilobular emphysema
(CLE), paraseptal emphysema (PSE), and panlobular emphysema (PLE).
 have found that in guinea pigs, chronic cigarette smoke exposure caused lesions similar to human centrilobular emphysema
and that latent adenoviral infection combined with cigarette smoke exposure caused an excess increase in lung volume, air-space volume, and lung weight and a further decrease in surface-to-volume ratio compared with smoke exposure alone.
may be distinguished from PLCH by the lack of a perceptible wall and the central location of vascular structures in the former [6,11].
There are 4 main types of emphysema: proximal acinar emphysema (including the centriacinar emphysema seen characteristically in cigarette smokers and the focal centriacinar emphysema seen in pneumoconiosis); panacinar emphysema, characteristically found in [alpha]1-antitrypsin (protease) deficiencies; distal acinar (paraseptal) emphysema, characteristically seen in young adults with spontaneous pneumothorax, or in association with centrilobular emphysema
; and finally airspace enlargement with fibrosis (also termed scar, irregular, or paracicatricial emphysema).
Pulmonary edema superimposed on background centrilobular emphysema
High- resolution computed tomography of inflation-fixed lungs: pathologic-radiologic correlation of centrilobular emphysema
. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136: 935-940.
 demonstrated that upregulation of granzyme B in CD8(+) and non-CD8(+) cells is an early phenomenon of small airway wall remodelling in centrilobular emphysema
, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of COPD.
In addition to the 78 patients from the lung cancer prevention study, the researchers collected data on four deceased patients who each donated a lung for transplantation (controls), four patients with centrilobular emphysema
who each donated a lung, and eight patients with panlobular emphysema who donated 10 lungs after lung transplantation.
Kawabata et al (2) described pathologic changes, termed airs-pace enlargement with fibrosis, some of which are the same thing (although they also appear to be including examples of centrilobular emphysema
with fibrosis in the emphysematous space, which is not the same thing), in lungs from smokers; the incidence of the lesion increased with amount of smoking and was present in 21% of the heaviest smokers.