The exclusion criteria being Foetal distress, Cephalopelvic
disproportion, Placenta previa type 2 posterior 3,4, Malpresentation, Multifoetal gestation, Pregnancy with medical disorder, Patients unwilling to give consent, noncephalic presentation, intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, foetal congenital anomaly, hydrocephalus or cystic hygroma.
Women with genital tract anomalies and suspected cephalopelvic
disproportion were exlusion of this study.
The acceptance criteria for both the groups were (a) older than 18 years, (b) being a primigravida, (c) having the birth on time ([greater than or equal to]38th week), (d) singleton pregnancy, (e) having no risk for pregnancy except obesity (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, early membrane rupture, etc.), (f) having no complications in the post-partum period, (g) having no operative vaginal deliveries, (h) having deliveries with elective cesarean because of cephalopelvic
disproportion, (i) having no diagnosed psychological problems, (j) being together with the newborn in the postpartum period, and (k) acceptance to participate in the study.
Obstructed labour is a well-known clinical entity, and cephalopelvic
disproportion is the most common cause.
Primigravid women with malpresentation, cephalopelvic
CS because of cephalopelvic
disproportion, fetal distress, and labor stagnation was considered an emergency CS as it was performed after the onset of labor.
Face presentation is associated with multiparity, macrosomia, cephalopelvic
disproportion, prematurity, polyhydramnios, and fetal anomalies (such as anencephaly or cervical mass) (9).
Signs of cephalopelvic
disproportion (CPD) leading to obstructed labour must, however, be excluded.
Obstetric practice and cephalopelvic
disproportion in Glasgow between 1840 and 1900.
Indications for caesarean section were fetal distress (3; 75%), and cephalopelvic
disproportion (1; 25%), and indications for operative vaginal deliveries were maternal exhaustion, delayed second stage, suspicion of fetal compromise, and imminent perineal laceration.
Caesarean section was performed due to cephalopelvic