cephalopod


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cephalopod

(sĕf`ələpŏd'), member of the class Cephalopoda, the most highly organized group of mollusks (phylum MolluscaMollusca
, taxonomic name for the one of the largest phyla of invertebrate animals (Arthropoda is the largest) comprising more than 50,000 living mollusk species and about 35,000 fossil species dating back to the Cambrian period.
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), and including the squidssquid,
carnivorous marine cephalopod mollusk. The squid is one of the most highly developed invertebrates, well adapted to its active, predatory life. The characteristic molluscan shell is reduced to a horny plate shaped like a quill pen and buried under the mantle.
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, octopusesoctopus,
cephalopod mollusk having no shell, eight muscular arms or tentacles, a pouch-shaped body, and two large, highly developed eyes. The prey (crabs, lobsters, and other shellfish) is seized by the sucker-bearing arms and pulled into the web of tissue at the base of the
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, cuttlefishcuttlefish,
common name applied to cephalopod mollusks that have 10 tentacles, or arms, 8 of which have muscular suction cups on their inner surface and 2 that are longer and can shoot out for grasping prey, and a reduced internal shell enbedded in the enveloping mantle.
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, and nautilusesnautilus
or chambered nautilus,
cephalopod mollusk belonging to the sole surviving genus (Nautilus) of a subclass that flourished 200 million years ago, known as the nautiloids.
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. The class as a whole has become adapted for a free-swimming existence. Cephalopods are able to move about rapidly, and most are aggressive carnivores. The part of the body that forms the foot in other mollusks is located anteriorly in cephalopods instead of ventrally. Part of the foot area surrounds the mouth and is modified into sucker-bearing tentacles, used to capture prey. The tentacles number 8 in octopuses, 10 in squids, and as many as 90 in nautiluses. The rest of the foot forms a muscular funnel, or siphon, which expels water from the mantle cavity, permitting cephalopods to move about by a kind of jet propulsion. Only one existing genus, the nautiluses, the sole survivors of an extinct group known as the nautiloids, possesses an external shell. In the squid and cuttlefish the shell has become internalized and reduced, and in the octopus it is completely absent. The cephalopod head is large and is equipped with prominent eyes that resemble those of vertebrate animals. The class Cephalopoda has a fossil record of 10,000 species, although only 600 exist today. The nautiloid group was dominant through Paleozoic times, and the ammonitesammonite
, one of a type of extinct marine cephalopod mollusk, related to the nautilus and resembling it in having an elaborately coiled and chambered shell. Unlike the interiors of nautilus shells, the chambers of ammonite shells display intricately shaped septa and sutures.
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 flourished in the Mesozoic era.

cephalopod

any marine mollusc of the class Cephalopoda., characterized by well-developed head and eyes and a ring of sucker-bearing tentacles. The group also includes the octopuses, squids, cuttlefish, and pearly nautilus
References in periodicals archive ?
These variations are similar to findings reported by earlier workers in a number of Cephalopod species (Chang et al., 2010; Guo et al., 2011; Li et al., 2013; Lu et al., 2011).
(1) Department of Marine Bioresources and Ecology, School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan; (2) Hakodate Cephalopod Research Center, Fisheries and Oceans Hakodate, Benten-cho 20-5, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-0051, Japan
Therefore, several population genetic investigations have been conducted in marine organisms, including cephalopod groups (Shaw 2003; Chang et al., 2010; Kang et al., 2012; Gao et al., 2016) using mitochondrial DNA genes which have high mutation and low recombination rates hence best projects population genetic structure, population differentiation and species relationships (Avise, 2000).
However, this behavior has only been discussed because of the discovery of cephalopod and marine mammal parts in stomachs of blue sharks (Markaida and Sosa-Nishizaki, 2010; Klarian et al., 2018).
The evidences exposed above suggest that cephalopod predators have been subjected to high doses of cadmium on a geological scale.
Coleoid cephalopods (cuttlefish, squids, and octopuses) are members of Mollusca that exhibit features such as human-like lens eyes and relatively large brains, and they are therefore considered intelligent invertebrates (Hanlon and Messenger, 1996; Williamson and Chrachri, 2004).
Vecchione, "Cephalopod biodiversity in the vicinity of Bear Seamount, western North Atlantic based on exploratory trawling from 2000 to 2014," Marine Biodiversity, vol.
Filipino competitors again swept the Cephalopod category, with Ian Amboy (1st place), PJ Aristorenas (2nd place), and Eric Yee (3rd place) taking home the awards.
Over-fishing might be reducing numbers of cephalopod predators.
"Lots of animals have papillae, but they can't extend and retract them instantaneously as octopus and cuttlefish do," says Hanlon, who is the leading expert on cephalopod dynamic camouflage.
"In addition to the googly-eyed cuteness, there is one thing biologically interesting about this observation," said cephalopod expert Michael Vecchione of the Smithsonian Institution.
The giant cuttlefish, like all of its cephalopod relatives, is a molluscan marvel that demonstrates the extraordinary complexity of invertebrate animals.