cephalothin


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cephalothin

[′sef·ə·lə·thən]
(microbiology)
An antibiotic derived from the fungus Cephalosporium, resembling penicillin units in structure and activity, and effective against many gram-positive cocci that are resistant to penicillin.
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The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that the AMS212 strain was sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested, including amikacin (AMI), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (CPM), cefoxitin (CFO), ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GEN), meropenem (MER) and sulfazotrim (SUT), and was resistant to ampicillin (AMP), cefuroxime (CRX), cephalothin (CFL), with particular resistance to amoxicillin plus clavulanate (AMC) confirming the Beta Lactamase of Extended Spectrum (ESBL) (Figure 3).
The most efficient antibiotics were Chloramphenicol and Gentamicin, inhibiting 100% of bacterial growth, followed by Ciprofloxacin (94%), Nalidixic Acid (78%), Imipenem (79%), Nitrofurantoin (37%) and Cephalothin (31%), as seen in Figure 1.
However, in the present investigation, the results of the antibiotic sensitivity test with eight different antibiotics indicate that the strain CASKS5 was found to be susceptible to the majority of antibiotics, for example, amikacin, erythromycin, novobiocin, oxytetracycline, and vancomycin, although it was resistant to only three antibiotics, namely, amoxicillin, bacitracin, and cephalothin (Figure 2).
For Klebsiella spp 47% of isolated strains have shown resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin and 37% to the cephalothin. To the antibiotics amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, sulfazotrimit was not obtained resistant strains.
Against gram-negative bacteria, the following antibiotics were used: amikacin (30ug), (20ug of amoxicillin + 10ug of clavulanate), cefotaxime (30ug), ceftazidime (30ug), cephalothin (30ug), chloramphenicol (30ug), ciprofloxacin (5ug), clindamycin (2ug), piperacillin (100ug) and tobramycin (10ug).
Other broad spectrum antibiotics such as cephalothin, carbenicillin, amoxicillin, cefamandole, tobramycin, and vancomycin were incorporated either with bone cement or coating of implants [6].
Extremely high resistance rates were observed to ampicillin (99%), cephalothin (95%), cefuroxime (95%), amoxicillin-clavulante (92%), and nitrofurantoin (91%).
Cephalothin sodium (30mg[kg.sup.-1]) was used as an antibiotic prophylaxis, IV 30 minutes before the beginning of the surgery.
The isolates showed highest resistance against penicillin followed by carbenicillin ampicillin tetracycline erythromycin ceftizoxime kanamycin co-trimoxazole piperacillin amoxicillin amikacin streptomycin nalidixic acid gentamicin chloramphenicol cephalothin and ceftriaxone.
(23) showed antimicrobial efficacy of tissue adhesive when mixed with various antibiotics (gentamicin, teicoplanin, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, vancomycin).
"Disk Susceptibility Studies with Cefazolin and Cephalothin." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 5(1): 63-67.