cerebral palsy

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cerebral palsy

(sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g., rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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, genital herpes simplexherpes simplex
, an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. It is caused by either of two herpes simplex viruses: Type 1, herpes labialis,
..... Click the link for more information.
), very low infant birthweight (less than 3.3 lb [1.5 kg]), and injury or physical abuse. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of certain drugs can also contribute. Most cases are associated with prenatal problems; about 10% of the cases are thought to be due to oxygen deficiency during the birth process. The severity of the affliction is dependent on the extent of the brain damage. Those with mild cases may have only a few affected muscles, while severe cases can result in total loss of coordination or paralysis.

There are many different forms of the disability, each caused by damage to a different area of the brain. The spastic type, accounting for over half of the cases, results from damage to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and causes the affected muscles to be contracted and overresponsive to stimuli. Athetoid cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the basal ganglia, results in continual, involuntary writhing movements. Choreic cerebral palsy is characterized by jerking, flailing movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy, involving the cerebellum, causes either an impaired sense of balance or a lack of coordinated movements. In addition to these types, which may occur singly or together, emotional, visual, and hearing impairments and convulsive seizures may be present. Some of those affected have a degree of mental retardation, but in many the intellect is unimpaired.

There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment usually includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and sometimes includes biofeedback and muscle relaxants. Sometimes appliances such as braces and surgery are helpful. Measures that appear to help decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy include maternal immunization against rubella, maternal abstention from smoking and alcohol consumption, magnesium sulfate given in premature labor, treatment for Rh incompatibility (see blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
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), and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundicejaundice
, abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. During the normal breakdown of old erythrocytes (red blood cells), their hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin.
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) in the newborn.

cerebral palsy

[sə′rē·brəl ′pȯl·zē]
(medicine)
Any nonprogressive motor disorder in humans caused by brain damage incurred during fetal development.

cerebral palsy

a nonprogressive impairment of muscular function and weakness of the limbs, caused by lack of oxygen to the brain immediately after birth, brain injury during birth, or viral infection
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the relevant literature,11 mild hypothermia treatment has a definite protective effect on patients with acute cerebral infarction, which is conducive to restoring and improving the neurological function of patients damaged in the acute phase of cerebral infarction.
Adults with cerebral palsy are 75% more likely to have a chronic disease and twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease and chronic respiratory disease, such as asthma.
PMZ-1620 has the potential to be a first-in-class neuronal progenitor cell therapeutics with anti-apoptotic activity that improves cerebral blood flow and neurological outcome in cerebral ischemic stroke patients, according to the company.
In athetoid cerebral palsy, there are involuntary movements in hands and facial muscles and also there is fluctuating tone in muscles5.
The Foundation's work informs, connects, and empowers people with cerebral palsy and related disabilities and their families.
The Cerebral Palsy Foundation was established in 1977 as a voluntary charitable organization, specializing in the care of children with cerebral palsy and similar disabilities.
A team of researchers led by Dr Kimberley Smith from the University of Surrey and Dr Jennifer Ryan from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland investigated the mental health of those with cerebral palsy and compared it with peers of a similar age, sex, and socioeconomic status, who were not sufferers.
Mahboob ur Rahman was runner for World Cerebral Palsy Day Award 2018 but his services were recognized and appreciation certificate was awarded to him.
In this report, we aimed to present an interesting case, about the usefulness of quick and noninvasive assessing the cerebral autoregulation limits with NIRS monitoring.This patient underwent a kidney transplant because of the presence of a suitable cadaveric kidney.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is often associated with poor functional and cognitive outcomes, (1) which are attributed to the initial hemorrhage, as well as secondary complications such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, or myocardial injury.
Cerebral palsy is a common developmental disability that was first described by Dr.
Cerebral oximetry (FORE-SIGHT, CasMed, Branford, CT) was used in anticipation of hemodynamic perturbations during the procedure.