cerebral palsy

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cerebral palsy

(sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g., rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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, genital herpes simplexherpes simplex
, an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. It is caused by either of two herpes simplex viruses: Type 1, herpes labialis,
..... Click the link for more information.
), very low infant birthweight (less than 3.3 lb [1.5 kg]), and injury or physical abuse. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of certain drugs can also contribute. Most cases are associated with prenatal problems; about 10% of the cases are thought to be due to oxygen deficiency during the birth process. The severity of the affliction is dependent on the extent of the brain damage. Those with mild cases may have only a few affected muscles, while severe cases can result in total loss of coordination or paralysis.

There are many different forms of the disability, each caused by damage to a different area of the brain. The spastic type, accounting for over half of the cases, results from damage to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and causes the affected muscles to be contracted and overresponsive to stimuli. Athetoid cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the basal ganglia, results in continual, involuntary writhing movements. Choreic cerebral palsy is characterized by jerking, flailing movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy, involving the cerebellum, causes either an impaired sense of balance or a lack of coordinated movements. In addition to these types, which may occur singly or together, emotional, visual, and hearing impairments and convulsive seizures may be present. Some of those affected have a degree of mental retardation, but in many the intellect is unimpaired.

There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment usually includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and sometimes includes biofeedback and muscle relaxants. Sometimes appliances such as braces and surgery are helpful. Measures that appear to help decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy include maternal immunization against rubella, maternal abstention from smoking and alcohol consumption, magnesium sulfate given in premature labor, treatment for Rh incompatibility (see blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
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), and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundicejaundice
, abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. During the normal breakdown of old erythrocytes (red blood cells), their hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin.
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) in the newborn.

cerebral palsy

[sə′rē·brəl ′pȯl·zē]
(medicine)
Any nonprogressive motor disorder in humans caused by brain damage incurred during fetal development.

cerebral palsy

a nonprogressive impairment of muscular function and weakness of the limbs, caused by lack of oxygen to the brain immediately after birth, brain injury during birth, or viral infection
References in periodicals archive ?
Doors of Hope has established a cerebral palsy centre for children in Nairobi, Machakos, and Kajiado counties.
We are thrilled to sponsor the Blazing New Trails program, as it provides much needed multi-disciplinary education and local support for the cerebral palsy community both in-person and at home," said Cynthia Schwalm, President, North America Commercial Operations.
cerebral edema, cerebral hemorrhage), gender, and age.
The doctors made her understand that cerebral palsy could actually be managed with therapy.
Conclusion: Treating hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma is remarkably effective.
The main objectives of Cerebral Palsy Midlands are to empower disabled people in their everyday lives, support them in attaining greater independence, and to help them develop their skills and talents, highlighting that disability is no barrier to success and achievement.
Several studies have addressed the prevalence of oral conditions associated with cerebral palsy, including poor oral hygiene, traumatic dental injuries, bruxism, sialorrhea and malocclusion.
Since Cerebral Palsy Alliance first opened its ACT office with sponsorship from ClubsACT, it has grown to employ 10 staff, with six therapists travelling throughout the ACT and Southern Tablelands providing services including occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology.
The research is published in The Lancet reporting on how adolescents with cerebral palsy from nine European regions feel about life.
Of over 2 million Norwegians born between 1967 and 2002 and included in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 3,649 were diagnosed with cerebral palsy, Dr.
Studies suggested that cerebral edema occurs only after the initiation of therapy and insulin therapy has been associated with cerebral edema in this setting.