cerebral palsy


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cerebral palsy

(sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g., rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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, genital herpes simplexherpes simplex
, an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. It is caused by either of two herpes simplex viruses: Type 1, herpes labialis,
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), very low infant birthweight (less than 3.3 lb [1.5 kg]), and injury or physical abuse. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of certain drugs can also contribute. Most cases are associated with prenatal problems; about 10% of the cases are thought to be due to oxygen deficiency during the birth process. The severity of the affliction is dependent on the extent of the brain damage. Those with mild cases may have only a few affected muscles, while severe cases can result in total loss of coordination or paralysis.

There are many different forms of the disability, each caused by damage to a different area of the brain. The spastic type, accounting for over half of the cases, results from damage to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and causes the affected muscles to be contracted and overresponsive to stimuli. Athetoid cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the basal ganglia, results in continual, involuntary writhing movements. Choreic cerebral palsy is characterized by jerking, flailing movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy, involving the cerebellum, causes either an impaired sense of balance or a lack of coordinated movements. In addition to these types, which may occur singly or together, emotional, visual, and hearing impairments and convulsive seizures may be present. Some of those affected have a degree of mental retardation, but in many the intellect is unimpaired.

There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment usually includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and sometimes includes biofeedback and muscle relaxants. Sometimes appliances such as braces and surgery are helpful. Measures that appear to help decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy include maternal immunization against rubella, maternal abstention from smoking and alcohol consumption, magnesium sulfate given in premature labor, treatment for Rh incompatibility (see blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
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), and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundicejaundice
, abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. During the normal breakdown of old erythrocytes (red blood cells), their hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin.
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) in the newborn.

cerebral palsy

[sə′rē·brəl ′pȯl·zē]
(medicine)
Any nonprogressive motor disorder in humans caused by brain damage incurred during fetal development.

cerebral palsy

a nonprogressive impairment of muscular function and weakness of the limbs, caused by lack of oxygen to the brain immediately after birth, brain injury during birth, or viral infection
References in periodicals archive ?
The study compared 1,700 adults with cerebral palsy and 5,000 adults without the condition to identify how many developed non-infectious diseases, such as asthma or stroke.
In a recent study it was concluded that body weight support treadmill training had significant effect in changes in spine of children with cerebral palsy that helped to improve gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy12.
For some children with cerebral palsy and their families, this could really improve the quality of life and help children walk more easily and without the use of walking frames and other aids.
The Foundation focuses on improving the lives of people with Cerebral Palsy through research, innovation and collaboration.
[8,15-17] Thus, it can be safely said that a radiological diagnosis is now possible in a majority of cases of cerebral palsy. However, this radiological diagnosis may not always correlate and provide reasoning as to why the brain lesion had occurred.
Susan now runs a daycare for children with cerebral palsy in Nairobi's Dandora phase one.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood [1, 2].
The general aim of the research was to examine whether there is difference in the quality of life between mothers of children with cerebral palsy and mothers of healthy children.
A Foundation of Hope for Children with Cerebral Palsy" (RFTS, Inc.) is the largest pediatric Cerebral Palsy nonprofit foundation in the world led by parent volunteers, with a focus on the prevention, treatment and cure of Cerebral Palsy.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, CP, Bone mineral density, BMD, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA, Lumber vertebra.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation and is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain.
Cerebral palsy generally refers to a range of disorders affecting a person's movement, muscle tone, balance and posture.

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