Certainty

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Certainty

 

a term used in probability theory, logic, epistemology, and law (theory of legal proof). In philosophical and logical-methodological investigations it is most frequently used to characterize knowledge that is valid, conclusive, or indisputable and also as a synonym for truth. In experimental natural science the term “certainty” frequently designates events and judgments that are regarded as empirically confirmed by special experiments or, more broadly, by the social and productive practice of men.

The term acquires a somewhat specialized meaning in probability theory. In so-called subjective, or personal, probability, certainty is most frequently interpreted as a concept reflecting the subject’s confidence in the correctness of his evaluation of the probability that a particular event will occur. From this point of view certainty also expresses the extent of a given individual’s knowledge about the conditions and factors contributing to or counteracting the occurrence of events. In this sense, with the exception of extremely idealized or oversimplified cases, certainty includes a considerable element of uncertainty, inasmuch as exhaustive knowledge about such conditions and factors is practically unobtainable.

A. I. RAKITOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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required as to the amount is less than the certainty required as to
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Longstanding informal relationships and understandings are unlikely to provide the certainty required if a purchaser or supplier needs to exercise its rights.
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Speer stated that the alleged cause "could very properly account" for the injury or that it "more likely than not" caused the injury, both of which did not meet the requisite degree of medical certainty required for a plaintiff to prevail in a medical malpractice case, keeping in mind that the plaintiff has the burden of proof in all such cases.
For many preparers, it may prove difficult to determine the correct treatment of routine items with the degree of certainty required by the MLTN standard.
And why is certainty required? Because our old friend capital, private interest, needs certainty in order to "invest," in order to continue to tear up the land at its unsustainable pace.