Ripening

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Ripening

 

of fruit, the bringing of unripened fruit to consumer ripeness. Fruit can be ripened in warehouses, or storage facilities, or in specially equipped lockers (artificial ripening). The winter varieties of apples and pears, as a rule, do not ripen on the tree. The summer and autumn varieties of apples and pears, as well as apricots, tomatoes, peaches, and melons are often harvested unripe to increase their transport-ability and length of storage. With ripening the fruit acquires its consumer qualities (taste, aroma, and so forth).

Ripening, whether on the plant or not, breaks down the compound organic substances of the fruits in simple ones—for example, protopectin turns into soluble pectin, starch is converted into sugar, and the fruit’s acid content is reduced. As a result, the fruit becomes softer and sweeter. Ripened (on the plant or artificially) fruit acquires its characteristic color as a result of the formation of coloring substances (pigments) in it. However, in fruit that is plant-ripened substances not only break down, but are also synthesized. The taste qualities of such fruit are higher than of fruit ripened in storage. For this reason, immature fruit is harvested and subsequently ripened only when necessary. Tomatoes are almost always artificially ripened.

Undamaged fruit is placed in open, well-ventilated boxes to ripen. Storage facilities are ventilated, heated, and protected from daylight. The speed of the artificial ripening depends upon the air humidity and temperature in the warehouse or locker. The relative air humidity should not be over 80 percent. To slow down ripening, fruit (for example, apples, pears, stone fruits, and melons) is stored at the lowest possible temperature, and to accelerate ripening, at approximately 20°C. At temperatures above 25°C, ripening is also retarded, and the decomposition of certain vitamins begins. In tomatoes the coloring pigment does not form and the fruit .becomes yellow.

Ripening can be accelerated by stimulants—for example, ethylene (a gas). Ethylene ripening of tomatoes is particularly effective, as the green mature fruit can be ripened in five days. In northern regions it is advisable to harvest green tomatoes and to ripen them artificially. This makes it possible to obtain ripe fruit one month earlier than with natural vine ripening. Ethylene ripening is done in airtight lockers kept in heated areas.

Triple-ply plywood lockers can be used for small batches of fruit. The fruit is placed on the shelves of the chambers in two or three layers, and the ethylene is introduced (1 liter of gas per cu m of locker). Large batches of fruit are placed in boxes and ripened in lockers equipped with heat and ventilation. Up to 80 kg of fruit can be placed per sq m of shelf. The lockers are filled with ethylene every 24 hours until the fruit has turned russet, after which the supply of gas is turned off. The fruit may also be ripened in gas-tight lockers filled with oxygen (60-80 percent of the locker’s volume). The lockers are kept at approximately 20°C. The fruit is kept in oxygen for three days, after which it ripens well under ordinary conditions.

REFERENCES

Rakitin, Iu. V. Rukovodstvo po uskoreniiu sozrevaniia pomidorov pri pomoshchi etilena, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Metlitskii, L. V. Biokhimiia na strazhe urozhaia. Moscow, 1965.

L. V. METLITSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Randomized comparison between intra vaginal misoprostol and dinoprostone for cervical ripening and induction of labor.
All subjects were induced labor for the indications according to the Chinese guideline of cervical ripening and labor induction during the third trimester pregnancy (draft) [sup][6] but demonstrated an unfavorable cervix (cervical Bishop score ≤6).
Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening before operative hysteroscopy in pre-menopausal women: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial with three dose regimens.
Our study is to evaluate the efficacy of misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent and its comparison against [PGE.
Characteristics of participants undergoing cervical ripening balloon (CRB) and Prostin (PGE) induction of labour.
Comparison of oral and vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening before evacuation of first trimester missed miscarriage.
A randomised comparison of early versus late amniotomy following cervical ripening with a Foley catheter," BJOG, vol.
All patients in both groups who did not go into spontaneous labour after 48 hours were categorised as 'failed labour induction' and together with the women with post-term pregnancies of [greater than or equal to]40 weeks and 10 days managed according to our departmental protocol of cervical ripening and labour induction (transcervical Foley catheter or intravaginal misoprostol) to ensure delivery before 42 weeks' gestation.
Breast stimulation for cervical ripening and induction of labour.
A comparison of intermitent vaginal administration of misoprostol with continous dinoprostone for cervical ripening and labor induction.
The immune system or inflammatory response is sufficient to cause cervical ripening, but it's not absolutely necessary for it to happen," points out Brenda Timmons, research scientist in obstetrics and gynecology and co-lead author of the study.