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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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an anatomically isolated cluster of nerve cells (neurons), nerve fibers, and tissues, found in many invertebrates, all vertebrates, and man. In vertebrates, ganglia are located along the nerve stems.

Intervertebral ganglia, ganglia near the vertebrae, prevertebral ganglia, and ganglia enclosed in the thickness of the walls of the internal organs are topographically distinguished from each other. The intervertebral ganglia and similar ganglia are made up of sensory pseudo-unipolar neurons. Other ganglia are part of the peripheral sector of the autonomous nervous system and are mainly clusters of effector multipolar autonomous neurons, including sensory and association neurons. The clusters of neurons in each ganglion are surrounded by a layer of satellite cells, outside of which there is a thin capsule of connective tissue. Between the groups of neurons there are thicker connective tissue layers forming the connective tissue base, or stroma, of the ganglion. On the outside the ganglion is covered by a fibrous capsule, from which blood vessels reach the ganglion by way of the connective tissue layers. The synapses (nerve fibers that form the end, or terminal, contacts) lead to the bodies and branches of the autonomic neurons. In invertebrates, the ganglia arecoordinating centers carrying out the functions of a central nervous system. By means of reciprocal connections the ganglia in invertebrates form a single system that corresponds in its arrangement to the overall structure of their bodies.



A group of nerve cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord.


1. an encapsulated collection of nerve-cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord
2. a cystic tumour on a tendon sheath or joint capsule
References in periodicals archive ?
A cervicothoracic ganglion was located on the lateral surface of the longus colli muscle (Phillips et al.; Ozgel et al.; Evans & de Lahunta, 2013), but in the present investigation, the left caudal cervical ganglion was situated on the lateral surface of the esophagus and the dorsal margin of ganglion overlapped the groove between longus colli muscle and esophagus, while on right side, the dorsal half of the caudal cervical ganglion was located on the ventrolateral surface of the longus colli muscle, while the ventral half hanged on the groove between the longus colli muscle and trachea.
In human, the cervicothoracic ganglion was formed by the coalescence of the last two cervical, and generally first thoracic nerve (Pather et al.) and sometimes second (Kalsey et al.) or additionally third and fourth thoracic sympathetic nerves (Annci & Elhan, 1995).
Cranial to the cervicothoracic ganglion, the sympathetic nerve was divided to ansa subclavia, around the subclavian artery (Evans & de Lahunta, 2010).
& Djonov, V An anatomical investigation of the cervicothoracic ganglion. Clin.
One or two thin nerve branches from caudodorsal side of cervicothoracic ganglion were distributed to trachea and esophagus.
There were also different nerve branches diverging from cervicothoracic ganglion expect the mentioned above nerves.
1-m) diverged from ventral side of cervicothoracic ganglion was participated into vagus nerve and a branch (Fig.
2-g) were diverged from center of cervicothoracic ganglion in right side.