To test whether mesh size affects the detection of earthworm chaetae
in faecal analysis, we ran a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM), with the presence/absence of chaetae
in each fraction as dependent variable, and mesh size as fixed effect (categorical with three levels: 0.21, 0.54 and 1.00 mm).
First chaetiger with annulated cirrus, equal in length or longer than antennae, and 2-3 simple chaetae
. Segments 2-9 with biramous parapodia, with 5-12 simple chaetae
per rami, and filiform and smooth interramal cirri.
trivial (nib-shaped, distal portion with parallel edges, not twisted).
Comparison: New material mostly corresponding with original description and paratype examined (Day 1957); in the paratype the last 12 chaetigers are abranchiate, falling within the range observed in the new material, posterior inferior companion chaetae
are not mentioned in the description but are present in both the new material and the paratype, although they are present on fewer chaetigers in the latter.
Winged capillary chaetae
on the anterior, and without wings on the posterior.
On the other hand, the higher frequency of stiff hairs in faeces may be an overestimate, chaetae
could have been intercepted into an epithelium of a digestive system and might therefore be repeatedly released into faecal samples during digestion, or they could come from the digestive system of other hoopoe prey such as predatory beetles (Z.
IV with globular apex; basolateral ms above the 2nd proximal row of chaetae
Juveniles removed from tubes 1-2 days after metamorphosis were about 350 [micro]m in length, with six chaetigers (the anterior three bearing capillary chaetae
and the posterior three hooded hooks: Fig.
(A.) indicus Naidu, the presence of a bifid or pectinate needle chaetae
, beginning at segment V.
First three parapodia reduced, with two or three spinigerous chaetae
and no cirri (Fig.
It is considerably larger there: 12-18 mm long, consisting of (35)50-58 segments, and with (1-3)4-8 chaetae
, measuring 70-110 [micro]m, per bundle (Timm 1999).
Burrowing by polydorids was initially believed to be carried out mechanically by the chaetae
, in particular the modified chaetae
of the filth chaetiger (Blake & Evans 1973).