chafer


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chafer

any of various scarabaeid beetles, such as the cockchafer and rose chafer

Chafer

 

a group of beetles of several subfamilies of the family Scaribeidae, including Melolonthidae, Rhizotroginae, and Pachydeminae. The body length ranges from 4 to 60 mm. The coloring is black, brown, or yellow, occasionally with a metallic sheen. The body is usually covered with white, yellow, or brown hairs or scales, which often hide the basic color and frequently form designs. The end of the abdomen is not covered by the elytra. The antennae have seven to ten segments terminating in a clava that is larger in males.

The females burrow into the ground, deposit 20–80 eggs, and die. The egg stage lasts ten to 45 days, and the larval stage ranges in length from a few months to three or four years. The pupal stage lasts two to four weeks. The white, C-shaped, fleshy larvae, with yellow or black-brown heads and long legs, live in the soil and feed on humus and plant roots. Upon emerging from their pupae the beetles feed on plant leaves. Sometimes they do not feed in the adult stage, especially desert and steppe species.

Insects of the group are distributed throughout the world, except in cold regions. They are especially numerous in the tropics. The group includes 5,000 species, about 240 of which are found in the USSR. Many are pests of agriculture and forestry, mainly the cockchafers (Melolontha hippocastani and M. melolantha), Polyphylla fullo, Amphimallon solstitiale, P. adspersa, and Anoxia pilosa. Control measures consist in repeated tilling of fallow fields and tree nurseries, planned cutting of forests, and the use of insecticides.

REFERENCES

Medvedev, S. I. Plastinchatousye (Scarabaeidae). Moscow-Leningrad, 1951–52. (Fauna SSSR: Zhestkokrylye, vol. 10, nos. 1–2).
Medvedev, S. I. Lichinki plastinchatousykh zhukov fauny SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.
Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 2. Leningrad, 1965.
Gornostaev, G. N. Nasekomye SSSR. Moscow, 1970.

O. L. KRYZHANOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Chafer CJ, Noonan M, Macnaught E (2004) The post-fire measurement of fire severity and intensity in the Christmas 2001 Sydney wildfires.
Deltamethrin and Diflubenzuron control army worn, while Gmma-HCH is effective against chafer grubs and cutworms.
Gerard O'Neill, a physicist, had wanted his ashes scattered on a space colony, but given the long wait, Chafer said, his relatives went with this option.
Peter Chafer observed: We asked them how far the police determine the content and they said entirely, so we made a little note to make sure that it didn't.
Key statement: Provided is a pneumatic radial tire having a rubber chafer arranged on the carcass ply in a contacting area of a bead portion with a rim; a bead filler arranged radially outside on the bead core and a side rubber extending along an outer surface of the carcass in each a side wall portion.
A badger's diet consists of around 50% worms and the rest is made up of leatherjackets (cranefly larvae), chafer grubs and other insect larvae, the majority of which can be found in lawns and short grass.
The exhibition has been put together in collaboration with artist and technologist Ian Upton and lecturer and actor Joff Chafer.
Chafer grubs gnaw at the grass roots in spring and summer, leaving small brown patches of grass.
Julian Chafer, the MoD's head of safeguarding, travelled to an Aberdeenshire Council meeting in Peterhead to plead with councillors to reject the plans.
Charlie Chafer, boss of the Houston firm, said: 'We hitchhike.
AIF the pest has legs then they are not vine weevil larvae but chafer grubs.