Convergent and divergent character displacement
Ecological character displacement
in Plethodon: biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study.
3) showed no evidence of reproductive character displacement
, manifest as greater incompatibility in sympatry; in fact, the trend suggests the converse pattern.
Despite the initial popularity of this concept of "character displacement
," the phenomenon and its dual, "character release" (Grant 1972) in areas of allopatry from a competitor, were widely seen for many years as uncommon at best, and alternative explanations for geographic variation are often available (Grant 1972).
Reproductive character displacement
was once considered a rare phenomenon (e.g., Littlejohn 1981; Phelan and Baker 1987), however more recent work suggests otherwise.
The third mechanism is reproductive character displacement
(Brown and Wilson 1956) or reinforcement (Dobzhansky 1951), whereby a low fitness of hybrids indirectly favors further divergence in mate preferences.
That quirk achieved textbook status as the only documented example of the theory of convergent character displacement
, explain Robert J.
3) Do interspecific differences in the timing of daily pollen release provide evidence of character displacement
among co-flowering Acacia species?
This opens the way for frequency dependent selection, divergence, character displacement
and competitive exclusion (MacArthur and Levins 1964).
The existence of Hutchinsonian ratios has only been weakly supported, but the regularity of size ratios, also referred to as morphological patterning, included under the umbrella of character displacement
, has been controversial (Taper 1993).
First, we investigate how the use of different ancestral reconstruction methods affect our hypothesis that character displacement
Natural selection in this case merely favors [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] the reduction of gametic waste (Butlin's  reproductive character displacement