# Characteristic Curve

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## characteristic curve

[‚kar·ik·tə′ris·tik ′kərv]
(graphic arts)
In photography, a graph that shows how increases in exposure increase the density of the film.
(mathematics)
One of a pair of conjugate curves in a surface with the property that the directions of the tangents through any point of the curve are the characteristic directions of the surface.
A curve plotted on graph paper to show the relation between two changing values.
A characteristic curve of a one-parameter family of surfaces is the limit of the curve of intersection of two neighboring surfaces of the family as those surfaces approach coincidence.

## Characteristic Curve

one of the most important indexes of a photographic material. It expresses (for specified exposure and developing conditions) the optical density obtained from photographic darkening of the material as a function of the common logarithm of the exposure that produced the darkening. (SeeSENSITOMETRY.)

## Characteristic curve

A graphical display depicting complex nonlinear relationships in electronic circuits. A typical use is to show voltage-current relationships in semiconductor devices. Device amplification capabilities, for example, are exhibited by a characteristic plot which traces output current versus output voltage with a third controlling variable as a parameter. This control variable could be the base current of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) or the gate-to-source voltage of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor.

Other characteristics often included in transistor data sheets are displays of current gain versus bias current, gain versus frequency, and input and output impedances versus frequency. Less commonly, other graphical nonlinear relationships, such as the variation of thermocouple voltage with temperature or the dependence of electrical motor torque with current, also are known as characteristic curves.

In the past, characteristic curves were used as tools in the graphical solution of nonlinear circuit equations that are followed by relationships of this type. In current practice, this analysis is performed using computer packages for circuit simulation. Designers still use characteristic curves from data sheets, however, to evaluate relative performance capabilities when selecting devices, and to provide the information needed for a preliminary pencil-and-paper circuit design. See Amplifier, Transistor

References in periodicals archive ?
Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio to predict lupus nephritis showed that area under the curve was 0.
Because, in accordance with Equation 6, the characteristic curve of the external system obeys the same quadratic relationship, the new operating point of the external system also moves from A to B.
For the other intervals of the equal-opening characteristic curve, [absolute value of [DELTA][n'.
Specifically, we compared FIT results with subsequent biopsy results to produce receiver operating characteristic curves for FIT and biopsy-proven neoplasias (colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma).
Figure 1 shows the plot of the item characteristic curves for the three items in the scale.
Generation of an in-situ characteristic curve requires physical measurements of the dependent variable and all independent variables, Y,[X.
1994: Equations for the soil-water characteristic curve.
He uses a characteristic curve technique to represent people, places and situations, and draws circular motifs to represent life on canvas.
The inconsistency of "optimal" cutpoints obtained using two criteria based on the receiver operating characteristic curve.
Item discrimination, the a parameter, is the slope of the line tangent to the item characteristic curve (ICC; see Figure 1) at the point of inflection.
Vert-X 21 LP Series sensors can be ordered as a simple three-wire angle sensor or a programmable version with up to two switch outputs, custom measurement angle, start and end-point settings, custom characteristic curve and/or sense of rotation.
So, from any type of geometry we try to get the most notable curve that defines the surface--the so-called characteristic curve already described by other researchers (Giannini et al.

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