8, we can clearly see that one octave of the outer ring of the bearing fault

characteristic frequency is 107.7 Hz, almost the same as the theoretical calculation 107.4 Hz, which can determine that the fault comes from the outer ring pitting failure.

Moreover, according to the illustration provided in Figures 19(c)-19(f), the disturbed noises during the pressure fluctuation signals collecting process are preserved by EMD-DT and EMD-IT denoising method, which is not conducive to detect the

characteristic frequency signal and may lead to an incorrect diagnosis conclusion.

But in practical applications, the fault

characteristic frequency and the theoretical value obtained after the signal analysis are not exactly the same.

yumanensis in the Pacific Northwest using a combination of forearm length and

characteristic frequency of echolocation calls.

By using them, it was possible to find, clearly, the

characteristic frequency components of the localized outer race defect, both in the experimental and simulated model data, validating its capabilities for the detection of fault signals in ball bearings.

It can be noticed from (17) that the maximum of the Z" occurs at Z' = [R.sub.s] + [R.sub.ct]/2, which corresponds to the

characteristic frequency of the charge transfer process ([[omega].sub.max]).

The conclusions are consistent with the analysis about the characteristics of the TZSC in Section 2; therefore, SK algorithm is introduced to analyse the fault information contained in the TZSC, and the

characteristic frequency bands can be selected.

Thus, with knowledge of the

characteristic frequency, we, the junction distance, [delta], can be calculated.

Thus, for example, if the basic block and the backup block are power amplifiers, control unit can be a simple voltage amplifier which should have just the same

characteristic frequency as the basic unit and so, by default, will have a better reliability.

This

characteristic frequency was shown to be related to the protein biological function [10].

Figure 7 shows one more example, in which FFT failed to detect the

characteristic frequency of the AE waveform, even though FFT analysis detected a relatively high frequency component.