Viewing the construction of matter through a different optic than that of the predominant doctrine, the author develops a different physical understanding by means of characteristic length
and energy scales than is currently taught in mainstream physics, and ascertains number constants for calculating masses, partial lifetimes, magnetic moments and charge radii of fundamental particles.
For MV, the characteristic length
L was specified by the length of the GCC from the air inlet of the dashboard to the air outlet in the luggage compartment.
where g [m/[s.sup.2]] is the gravitational acceleration, J [m/s] is the superficial velocity, [H.sup.*] [-] is the dimensionless velocity, w [m] is the characteristic length
, and [rho] [kg/[m.sup.3]] is the density.
Next, assuming uniaxial ordering described by (5), we imposed a distortion to orientational ordering on a characteristic length
The flow of gas in micro/nanoscale medium is usually a function of the ratio of the molecular mean free path of a gas molecule to characteristic length
of the medium; this function is referred to as the Knudsen number.
The diameter D of the spherical head cylinder was chosen as the characteristic length
, and the diameter of the spike was set to d/D = 0.1.
According to Vlasov's theory , the corresponding formula of the internal forces in the two boundary conditions are given in Equations (1) (fixed-fixed supported) and (2) (simply supported), respectively, where [M.sub.[omega]] is the warping moment; [T.sub.[omega]] is the warping torque; [T.sub.c] is the circulatory torque; [kappa] is the characteristic length
defined as the square root of the stiffness ratio of warping torsion to circulatory torsion, k = [square root of (E[I.sub.[omega]])/(GK)] (m); E is the elasticity modulus; [I.sub.[omega]] is the principal sectorial moment of inertia calculated by [I.sub.[omega]] = [[integral].sub.A][omega][[omega].sup.2]dA, in which [omega] is principal sectorial coordinate; G is the shear modulus taken as 0.4 E; K is St.
Because the cross section of the model is a concentric circle and the hydraulic diameter of the model is the characteristic length
of the model.
For solar studies, the radar wavelength must be longer than the Debye length, a characteristic length
scale in a plasma.
where [e.sub.0] is a material constant, a is an internal characteristic length
, and I stands for external characteristic length
Although QPSO algorithm has better global con vergence than PSO, this method calculates the characteristic length
of Delta potential well only according to the mean best position, which will reduce the global search ability of the algorithm.
In some situations, it so happens that the characteristic length
scale is on the order of the average distance between molecules of the fluids such that even pore-scale simulation may not be correct.