Here, it defines [T.sub.1] as the "

characteristic value" of T when [V.sub.1]=0.5, and then, Equation 17 becomes

Where [chi]* is the dimensionless

characteristic value. [chi] is the observational data of the eddy current sensor or ultrasonic sensor.

Notice that if [lambda] is the eigenvalue of [L.sub.0], then it also is the

characteristic value of L.

Therefore, a

characteristic value of corrosion intensity, [I.sub.corr], can be quite helpful when service life estimations are required.

The

characteristic value from the oil production system should be extracted as the input of the model and the weight and threshold value of RBFNN should be optimized using the MMAGA method according to the structure characteristics of oil production systems and oil well pumps.

In Figure 15, the solid line represents the target

characteristic value, the dashed line (which was previously shown in Figure 10) represents the cone vibration displacement characteristics from our analysis, and [d.sub.i] (i = 1, 2, ..., n) represents the distance from the displacement characteristic to the target

characteristic value at each frequency from 1 to 5 kHz.

The distribution of earth pressure and pile stress is relatively homogeneous and stable over depth and load, while the development of CFG composite foundation bearing capacity is insufficient, in which the developed bearing capacity of CFG piles is less than 50% of its

characteristic value. The deformation modulus and thickness of cushion exert significant influence on pile-soil stress ratio and integral bearing capacity of CFG composite foundation.

If matrix A has a unique pair of conjugate purely imaginary characteristic roots [[lambda].sub.1,2] = [+ or -]i[[omega].sub.0] ([[omega].sub.0] > 0), and we denote q as the characteristic vector corresponding to the

characteristic value i[[omega].sub.0] of matrix A, then

These results show that curvature ductility could not continue to be improved by increasing the amount of the transverse reinforcement with a stirrup

characteristic value superior to approximately 0.35.