Absorption of a photon generates a negatively charged particle (an electron) and a positively charged species
known as a 'hole', and the two must be spatially separated so that a water molecule can be reduced to hydrogen by the electron and oxidized by the hole to form oxygen.
Liquid water is known to be an excellent transporter of its own autoionization products; that is, the charged species
obtained when a water molecule (H2O) is split into protons (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH?).
The design and development of these MHD generators required the accurate computation of the charged species
concentrations to determine the conductivity of the working fluid.) In recent years, research on ionization in flames has been spurred by the need for advanced ignition methods for engineering applications.
A possible explanation of the behavior of the solvent system under study may be found due to by considering the selective solvation  which occurs when the composition of the solvent components in the neighborhood of the charged species
is different from the composition of 10 wt% of 2-propanol the concentration of the solvent component with higher dielectric constant increases around the charged species
The use of ESI is primarily for the analysis of charged species
Specific topics include elementary processes of charged species
in plasma, plasma statistics and kinetics of charged particles in plasma, glow discharge, non-equilibrium cold atmosphere pressure discharges, and electron beam plasmas.
One explanation of this phenomenon, based on this initial observation, could be that the multiple charges present on biomolecules created a higher electrical imbalance within the droplet, thus enhancing ejection of gas phase ions when compared with similar droplet stoichiometry for singly charged species
Until recently, only neutral and positively charged species
had been detected.
Anion binding process which involves non-covalent interactions, namely electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions between a receptor and a negatively charged species
, constitute a major challenge as compared to the cation binding.
As previously mentioned, EDI is a process that acts to remove charged species