In the case of charmonium
[[PSI] = c[bar.c]], the rest mass equation is as follows.
Just as a hydrogen atom - which consists of an electron and a proton - has various energy levels, charmonium
has a so-called ground state and a number of excited states.
These states challenge the understanding of charmonium
spectroscopy as well as QCD calculations [4, 19, 20].
Mishra, "pQCD approach to charmonium
regeneration in QGP at the LHC," Nuclear Physics A, vol.
Lee, "New charmonium
states in QCD sum rules: a concise review," Physics Reports, vol.
In our present analysis we had used the temperature dependence of the quasi-particle Debye mass, [m.sup.QP.sub.D], in full QCD with [N.sub.f] = 3 to determine charmonium
suppression in an expanding, dissipative strongly interacting QGP medium.
: comparison with experiment," Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol.
All the potentials which are mentioned here have almost similar behaviour in the range of 0.1 fm [less than or equal to] r [less than or equal to] 1 fm which is characteristic region of charmonium
and bottomonium systems [32, 33].
The potential model works well in describing the heavy quarkonia states , especially for the charmonium
states below the open-charm threshold.
Unlike the symmetric heavy quark bound states b[bar.b] (bottomonium) and c[bar.c] (charmonium
), [B.sub.c] meson is the lowest bound state of two heavy quarks (b and c) with different flavors and charge.
Many efforts have been devoted to calculating the mass spectra of charmonium
and bottomonium mesons and determining the binding energy and the dissociation temperatures of heavy quarkonia.
In [4, 34, 55], the authors calculated the mass spectra of quarkonium systems as charmonium
and bottomonium mesons with the quark-antiquark interaction potential using various methods in many works.