Charophyta

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Charophyta

[kə′räf·əd·ə]
(botany)
A group of aquatic plants, ranging in size from a few inches to several feet in height, that live entirely submerged in water.

Charophyta

 

(also Charophyceae), a phylum of algae or, according to some classifications, a class of green algae. The plants reach 1 m in height and have lateral branches that depart in whorls from multicellular nodes. Each internode consists of one cell, which may become overgrown by a bark of narrow cells that grow upward and downward from the nodes. The cell membranes are sometimes calcified. The lower parts, which are submerged in mud or sand, are colorless and have rhizoids. Vegetative reproduction occurs from various parts of the algae and from unicellular or multicellular tubercles formed on shoots in the ground. Asexual reproduction by spores is absent. The organs of sexual reproduction are multicellular: the oogoniums (spore buds), with one egg cell, and the antheridia. Fertilization occurs on the maternal plant; meiosis occurs when the oogonium sprouts, with three nuclei out of four being destroyed.

There are 300 species, making up six genera. The USSR has 45 species. The algae grow in freshwaters and in areas of seas with decreased salinity. They have the property of softening hard water. Charophyta are known in fossil form from the Devonian.

References in periodicals archive ?
Direct effects of increased C[O.sub.2] concentrations in seawater on the net primary production of charophytes in a shallow, coastal, brackish-water ecosystem.
The opposing opinion favours somewhat brackish water in the Khovanshchinian Sea based on the wide distribution of charophytes (Samoilova 1954).
Microalgal and cyanobacterial assemblages on Charophytes: a metacommunity perspective.
A SEM and light microscopy study of the oospore wall ornamentation in Polish charophytes (Charales, Charophyceae)-genus Chara.
Based on the information from the literature (Appelgren and Mattila, 2005; Selig et al., 2007; Steinhardt et al., 2009) the abundance or depth distribution of charophytes was considered as a good metric for assessing the ecological status of a water body.
It is very important for freshwater ecosystems that charophytes can influence water chemistry ([15] and references quoted therein).
These uncertainties arise because the macrofossil record is poor for the critical period in earth history, because consensus has not been reached on which charophytes are most closely related to embryophytes, and because charophycean life cycles are still poorly known.
However, the identification of molecular defense elicitors is time-consuming, and the lack of evidence of innate immunity in entire macroalgal clades such as chlorophytes and charophytes could simply reflect a lack of investigations.
The inventory of aquatic macrophytes of Silver Lake documented 42 taxa, including three (7.1%) state-listed species (Ceratophyllum echinatum, Myriophyllum verticillatum, and Zannichellia palustris), one (2.4%) exotic (Myriophyllum spicatum), four (9.5%) charophytes (Chara braunii, Chara foliolosa, Chara globularis, and Nitella flexilis), and two (4.8%) liverworts (Riccia fluitans and Ricciocarpus natans).
Submerged macrophyte pioneers are mainly charophytes (especially Chara vulgaris and C.
Glacial and post-glacial charophytes from New York and Indiana.