Charophyta

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Charophyta

[kə′räf·əd·ə]
(botany)
A group of aquatic plants, ranging in size from a few inches to several feet in height, that live entirely submerged in water.

Charophyta

 

(also Charophyceae), a phylum of algae or, according to some classifications, a class of green algae. The plants reach 1 m in height and have lateral branches that depart in whorls from multicellular nodes. Each internode consists of one cell, which may become overgrown by a bark of narrow cells that grow upward and downward from the nodes. The cell membranes are sometimes calcified. The lower parts, which are submerged in mud or sand, are colorless and have rhizoids. Vegetative reproduction occurs from various parts of the algae and from unicellular or multicellular tubercles formed on shoots in the ground. Asexual reproduction by spores is absent. The organs of sexual reproduction are multicellular: the oogoniums (spore buds), with one egg cell, and the antheridia. Fertilization occurs on the maternal plant; meiosis occurs when the oogonium sprouts, with three nuclei out of four being destroyed.

There are 300 species, making up six genera. The USSR has 45 species. The algae grow in freshwaters and in areas of seas with decreased salinity. They have the property of softening hard water. Charophyta are known in fossil form from the Devonian.

References in periodicals archive ?
The opposing opinion favours somewhat brackish water in the Khovanshchinian Sea based on the wide distribution of charophytes (Samoilova 1954).
A SEM and light microscopy study of the oospore wall ornamentation in Polish charophytes (Charales, Charophyceae)-genus Chara.
2009) the abundance or depth distribution of charophytes was considered as a good metric for assessing the ecological status of a water body.
5%) charophytes (Chara braunii, Chara foliolosa, Chara globularis, and Nitella flexilis), and two (4.
Submerged macrophyte pioneers are mainly charophytes (especially Chara vulgaris and C.
Glacial and post-glacial charophytes from New York and Indiana.
Facilitation of clear-water conditions in shallow lakes by macrophytes: differences between charophytes and angiosperm dominance.
Locally, in the stratigraphic section ACE, in the upper part of this association, abundant quartz grains and charophytes have been observed together with gastropods and other mollusks, ostracods and scarce echinoderms.
Influence of abiotic environmental conditions on spatial distribution of charophytes in the coastal waters of West Estonian Archipelago, Baltic Sea.
Besides, charophytes are an important component in the food web as part of the diet of benthic invertebrates (Kotta et al.
The dominating groups are charophytes and tall emergent plants; in the next stages of decline, ceratophyllids, nymphaeids, and lemnids.