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chauvinism

(shō`vənĭzəm), word derived from the name of Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier of the First French Empire. Used first for a passionate admiration of Napoleon, it now expresses exaggerated and aggressive nationalism. As a social phenomenon, chauvinism is essentially modern, becoming marked in the era of acute national rivalries and imperialism beginning in the 19th cent. It has been encouraged by mass communication, originally by the cheap newspaper. Chauvinism exalts consciousness of nationality, spreads hatred of minorities and other nations, and is associated with militarism, imperialism, and racism. In the 1960s, the term "male chauvinist" appeared in the women's liberation movement; it is applied to males who refuse to regard females as equals.

Chauvinism

 

an extreme form of nationalism, involving the advocacy of national exclusivity. Chauvinists place the interests of their own nation above the interests of all others, promote national arrogance, and exacerbate national hatreds and animosities.

The term “chauvinism” first appeared in France. It derives from the name of an aggressive and bellicose recruit in the comedy The Tricolor Cockade (1831), by the brothers J.-H. and C.-T. Cogniard. The recruit, Nicolas Chauvin, was apparently based on a real Nicolas Chauvin, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who was known for his worship of Napoleon and his belief that the emperor had made France great.

The word “chauvinism” was eventually applied to many types of exaggerated nationalism. “Jingoism” came into use in Great Britain in the 1870’s as a synonym. Terms such as “social chauvinism” and “great power chauvinism” have been devised to identify particular types of chauvinism.

Chauvinism flourishes in imperialist countries. Its most extreme manifestation is the antihuman ideology and policies of fascist states. The struggle against chauvinist ideologies and their proponents has always been one of the most important tasks confronting Marxist-Leninist parties.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Rabochii klass i natsional’nyi vopros.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 23.
Lenin, V. I. “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional’nomu voprosu.” Ibid., vol. 24.
Lenin, V. I. “O bor’be s sotsial-shovinizmom.” Ibid. , vol.
26. Lenin, V. I. “Prikrytie sotsial-shovinistskoi politiki internatsionalisticheskimi frazami.” Ibid., vol. 27.
Marksizm-Leninizm o proletarskom internatsionalizme. Moscow, 1969.
Leninizm i natsional’nyi vopros v sovremennykh usloviiakh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

Chauvinism

See also Bigotry, Patriotism.
Chauvin, Nicolas
soldier who passionately admired Napoleon; whence, ultranationalism. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 518]
Helmer, Torvald
treats wife Nora as an inferior being. [Nor. Lit.: A Doll’s House]
Jingo
legendary second-century empress of Japan, victorious invader of Korea and hence the conjectural eponym of jingoism. [Jap. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
Jingoes
nickname of 19th-century English pro-war party. [Br. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
male chauvinist pig
denigrating designation for a man who treats women as inferiors. [Am. Pop. Culture: Misc.]
References in periodicals archive ?
I should mention again in the course of our struggle for devolution over thousands of Sinhala socialist and social democratic elements were killed by the chauvinists killers of Janatha Vimukthi Perumuna .
Female Chauvinist Pigs may lay out what most of us already know: that this sexed-up Paris Hilton dummy culture is no good for women.
VODAFONE GOLD CUP BETTING, Ladbrokes: 9-2 Buckby Lane, 6-1 Chauvinist, 8-1 Hand Inn Hand, Supreme Prince, 9-1 It Takes Time, 10-1 Venn Ottery, Le Duc, 11-1 Whereareyounow, 14-1 First Gold, Scots Grey, 16-1 Mouseski, 25-1 Turgeonev, 33-1 Knife Edge, Simply Gifted, Horus, 40-1 Avalanche, 50-1 Marked Man, 66-1 Amberleigh House.
He has done a lovely paint job on our house (far better than I could have) and I'll still prefer to call him a male chauvinist pussy cat, not pig - because he's nice.
Once a male chauvinist paradise, Japan is suddenly the home of assertive women and so-called "grass-feeder" men, who are sensitive, even asexual creatures, overshadowed by their female peers.
Not wishing to be classed as amale chauvinist pig, the driverswho shouldn''t be on the road are women.
I'm the male chauvinist pig version of a feminist" - TV's Clive James.
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Freddie reckons he was wrongly portrayed as a chauvinist who leaves all the cooking, cleaning and nappy changing to his third wife, Donna.
Chauvinist drops down in trip after a below-par effort at Aintree, while novice Lord On The Run tackles seasoned hand-icappers for the first time.
QI MOVED in with my boyfriend recently and all of a sudden he's gone from New Man to male chauvinist.
Ariel Levy, Female Chauvinist Pig: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture (Schwartz Publishing, October 2005)