chauvinism

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chauvinism

(shō`vənĭzəm), word derived from the name of Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier of the First French Empire. Used first for a passionate admiration of Napoleon, it now expresses exaggerated and aggressive nationalism. As a social phenomenon, chauvinism is essentially modern, becoming marked in the era of acute national rivalries and imperialism beginning in the 19th cent. It has been encouraged by mass communication, originally by the cheap newspaper. Chauvinism exalts consciousness of nationality, spreads hatred of minorities and other nations, and is associated with militarism, imperialism, and racism. In the 1960s, the term "male chauvinist" appeared in the women's liberation movement; it is applied to males who refuse to regard females as equals.

Chauvinism

 

an extreme form of nationalism, involving the advocacy of national exclusivity. Chauvinists place the interests of their own nation above the interests of all others, promote national arrogance, and exacerbate national hatreds and animosities.

The term “chauvinism” first appeared in France. It derives from the name of an aggressive and bellicose recruit in the comedy The Tricolor Cockade (1831), by the brothers J.-H. and C.-T. Cogniard. The recruit, Nicolas Chauvin, was apparently based on a real Nicolas Chauvin, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who was known for his worship of Napoleon and his belief that the emperor had made France great.

The word “chauvinism” was eventually applied to many types of exaggerated nationalism. “Jingoism” came into use in Great Britain in the 1870’s as a synonym. Terms such as “social chauvinism” and “great power chauvinism” have been devised to identify particular types of chauvinism.

Chauvinism flourishes in imperialist countries. Its most extreme manifestation is the antihuman ideology and policies of fascist states. The struggle against chauvinist ideologies and their proponents has always been one of the most important tasks confronting Marxist-Leninist parties.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Rabochii klass i natsional’nyi vopros.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 23.
Lenin, V. I. “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional’nomu voprosu.” Ibid., vol. 24.
Lenin, V. I. “O bor’be s sotsial-shovinizmom.” Ibid. , vol.
26. Lenin, V. I. “Prikrytie sotsial-shovinistskoi politiki internatsionalisticheskimi frazami.” Ibid., vol. 27.
Marksizm-Leninizm o proletarskom internatsionalizme. Moscow, 1969.
Leninizm i natsional’nyi vopros v sovremennykh usloviiakh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

Chauvinism

See also Bigotry, Patriotism.
Chauvin, Nicolas
soldier who passionately admired Napoleon; whence, ultranationalism. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 518]
Helmer, Torvald
treats wife Nora as an inferior being. [Nor. Lit.: A Doll’s House]
Jingo
legendary second-century empress of Japan, victorious invader of Korea and hence the conjectural eponym of jingoism. [Jap. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
Jingoes
nickname of 19th-century English pro-war party. [Br. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
male chauvinist pig
denigrating designation for a man who treats women as inferiors. [Am. Pop. Culture: Misc.]
References in periodicals archive ?
Slogans which are in favour of Greece and against Turkey cannot be considered either chauvinistic or racist," he said on a lunch-time TV show.
As might be expected in a chauvinistic society, this was a far more successful argument when made by men against women.
When her status is denied by a corrupt and chauvinistic Bard who harmed Maerad's mother, Maerad has gained enough self-confidence to battle the enemy.
Satrapi also gains a better understanding of the deeply chauvinistic roots of her native culture and once again finds herself scrambling to find her bearings in a country whose traditions are diametrically opposed to her own.
At night, in the desolate hair shirt/of her absence, I own the lodestone of her weeping://it bespeaks the silence of her cloistered tongue--/a zone I cannot enter but whose passion I reap,//lured like geese honing off over the Danube, restlessly/obedient to laws chauvinistic and infidel--and deepening.
I'm not being chauvinistic here, just wondering why the proportion of Americans in American companies seems markedly smaller than, say, the proportion of French dancers in French companies, or Russian dancers in Russian companies, Italian dancers in Italian companies.
Loath to reprise the tired but persistent chauvinistic endorsements exemplified by Irving Sandler's Triumph of American Painting (1970) and spurred by his own Vietnam War activism, Kozloff, then an Art forum associate editor, decided to try something new.
IS IT TIME for a more chauvinistic approach to circuit board design?
This is perpetrated especially by a chauvinistic Hollywood in turn based on an American tendency to 'hog the limelight' and on the biased memoirs of some American commanders after 1945.
You are asking them to make a purchase, and they expect that you will give them reasons to do so and that you will appear chauvinistic about your operation.
The only whiff of this chauvinistic but heady excitement occurred in baseball, where Tommy Lasorda's semi-pros beat the "invincible" Castro ball club, and in the great sport of Greco-Roman wrestling, where a cute, chubby, 29-year-old country boy from Wyoming beat the "invincible" and awesome Russian heavyweight champion.