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[Lat.,=singer], a singer or chanter, especially one who performs the solo chants of a church service. The office of cantor, at first an honorary one, originated in the Jewish synagogues, in which from early times it was the custom to appoint a lay member to represent the congregation in prayer. The notation of the chants was forbidden. In the 6th cent. poetic prayer forms were developed, and with them more complicated modes, or music, thus necessitating professional cantors. In the early Christian church, cantors known as precentors had charge of the musical part of the service. In modern Roman Catholic and Anglican services cantors sing the opening words of hymns and psalms.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the Catholic Church, a singer; in Protestant churches, a singing teacher, choir conductor, and organist, whose duties also often included the composition of music for the church (for example, J. S. Bach at St. Thomas in Leipzig). In a Jewish synagogue, the main singer, or hazan.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. Judaism a man employed to lead synagogue services, esp to traditional modes and melodies
2. Christianity the leader of the singing in a church choir
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(person, mathematics)
A mathematician.

Cantor devised the diagonal proof of the uncountability of the real numbers:

Given a function, f, from the natural numbers to the real numbers, consider the real number r whose binary expansion is given as follows: for each natural number i, r's i-th digit is the complement of the i-th digit of f(i).

Thus, since r and f(i) differ in their i-th digits, r differs from any value taken by f. Therefore, f is not surjective (there are values of its result type which it cannot return).

Consequently, no function from the natural numbers to the reals is surjective. A further theorem dependent on the axiom of choice turns this result into the statement that the reals are uncountable.

This is just a special case of a diagonal proof that a function from a set to its power set cannot be surjective:

Let f be a function from a set S to its power set, P(S) and let U = { x in S: x not in f(x) }. Now, observe that any x in U is not in f(x), so U != f(x); and any x not in U is in f(x), so U != f(x): whence U is not in { f(x) : x in S }. But U is in P(S). Therefore, no function from a set to its power-set can be surjective.


An object-oriented language with fine-grained concurrency.

[Athas, Caltech 1987. "Multicomputers: Message Passing Concurrent Computers", W. Athas et al, Computer 21(8):9-24 (Aug 1988)].
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (
References in periodicals archive ?
Chazan's book describes how the campaign brought significant change not only for South African grandmothers and their families and communities but also for the Canadian grandmothers, who developed new forms of solidarity, engagement and identification.
One purpose of the animations used in the study reported by Nachlieli is to show the teacher do something in an atypical way (Herbst, Nachlieli, & Chazan, 2011).
(59) Guy Chazan, "South Stream gas project may now be a pipe dream," Financial Times, August 24, 2014.
Chazan is one of 3,000 Polish doctors, many of whom work at state-funded hospitals, who have signed a "Declaration of Faith" citing religious reasons for their refusal to provide abortion, contraception, in vitro fertilization and euthanasia.
In an article headlined aSouth Stream gas project may now be a pipe dreama Chazan highlights that the project has become aa symbol of the hardening of attitudes betweena Russia and the European Union since the start of the crisis in Ukraine.
Edited by May Chazan, Lisa Helps, Anna Stanley & Sonali Thakkar (Between the Lines, 2011)
Brother of the late Larry Kimenker, Jerry Kimenker and Barbara Chazan. He was like a brother to the late Barbara R.
Robert Chazan's essay on medieval Christendom discusses how the attitudes of some Christian secular and church leaders, as well as ordinary persons toward Jews, could be supportive.