Specimens of the genus Nitrobacter are facultative chemoautotrophic
, they are reported in terrestrial and aquatic environments (EHRICH et al., 1995) and were present only in the IN (10%) and MB treatments due to the higher concentration of NOB in these systems, responsible for the transformation of nitrite into nitrate, having IN (10%) the highest concentration of nitrate between the treatments.
polythalamius was shown to be comprised nearly entirely of sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic
(thioautotrophic) bacteria (Distel et al., 2017) rather than cellulolytic symbionts, as observed in other shipworm species (Distel et al., 1991, 2002; Luyten et al., 2006; O'Connor et al., 2014).
Other species of benthic mollusc are able to utilise sulphur in anoxic sediments as an energy source as they contain symbiotic chemoautotrophic
sulphur-oxidising bacteria, but these are not present in members of the Penicillidae (Morton 2002).
bacteria, including the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacilli and Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, are the base of the food web of this cave (Roach et al., 2011).
The strong dominance of olenids in sea-floor environments that were poor in oxygen but rich in sulphur suggested to Fortey (2000) that they may have been chemoautotrophic
The effect of 2-chloro, 6-(trichlormethyl) pyridine on the chemoautotrophic
metabolism of nitrifying bacteria.
In this study, the double domain BMC protein CsoS1D from the chemoautotrophic
sulfur bacterium Halothiobacillus neapolitanus was expressed recombinantly and used to generate a polyclonal antibody.
These microbes are "chemoautotrophic
," meaning they derive energy from chemical reactions and are completely independent of the sunlight-driven life on the surface of our planet.
Evidence for chemoautotrophic
symbiosis in a Mediterranean cold seep clam (Bivalvia: Lucinidae): comparative sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA, APS reductase and RubisCO genes.
Robinson (2005) notes that the earliest and most basic forms of life forms are the Archaea (most chemoautotrophic
single-celled organisms which are very resistant and can thrive in harsh conditions), Bacteria (single-celled organisms with complex cell walls) and Eukaryotes (organisms made up of cells with nuclei, that is, their DNA is walled off in a separate compartment of the cell).
Russell, "On the Origins of Cells: A Hypothesis for the Evolutionary Transitions from Abiotic Geochemistry to Chemoautotrophic
Prokaryotes, and from Prokaryotes to Nucleated Cells," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 358 (2003): 59-85.