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By correlating the clinical and biological parameters, the TFT score showed a direct correlation with mucous secretion severity (p = 0.004, R = 0.373) and conjunctival chemosis (p = 0.031, R = 0.278), indicating that in patients with secretion and severe chemosis, TFT also demonstrates poor quality of the lacrimal mucous component (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)).
The pathogenesis of the acute inflammatory stage has been attributed to autoimmunity, but a number of clinical and experimental studies suggest that superior orbital vein congestion also plays an important role in the disease inflammatory staging and contributes to the development of clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., proptosis, muscle restriction, periorbital swelling, and chemosis) during the active stage of the disease [8-10].
Although chemosis is observed in patients with severe preseptal cellulitis, it is generally a finding of orbital cellulitis (11, 12).
On examination of the eye, there was chemosis but no hyphaema or conjunctivitis.
After four courses of treatment, his CAS had decreased to 5 due to relief of the chemosis. His TES decreased significantly from 32 to 21.
The clinical activity score of our patient was 3, as there was marked chemosis, redness of the eyes and swelling of eyelids.
Our study showed atonic pupil, subconjunctival hemorrhage, chemosis, diplopia and muscle weakness as the major complications of the procedure.
Given the anatomic relationships, thrombosis of the cavernous sinus can result in ophthalmoplegia, chemosis, periorbital swelling, proptosis, Horner's syndrome, diplopia and decreased visual acuity.
The ocular signs assessed were conjunctival congestion, chemosis, lid edema using slit lamp biomicroscope that was graded according to the severity (Grade 0 - absent, Grade 1 - mild, Grade 2 - moderate, Grade 3 - severe) by the ophthalmologist; and ocular symptoms assessed were itching, discomfort, foreign body sensation, stinging, photophobia, and watering (Grade 0 - absent, Grade 1 - mild, Grade 2 - moderate, Grade 3-severe) by interviewing the patients.
The clinical presentation of CCFs is related to their size and the flow rate of venous drainage, leading to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhages, or infarcts.
Chemosis, blepharospasm, ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal opacity/ edema, graft retention, and neovascularization were graded as absent, mild, moderate, or severe (GODOY-ESTEVEZ et al., 2015).