chemotherapy


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chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
References in periodicals archive ?
July 1, 2019, State Accreditation Service for Health Care According to the data, there are 6 institutions authorized to provide oncology chemotherapy services in hospitals: National Cancer Institute, Santara and Kaunas Clinics, Klaip?da University Hospital, Klaip?da University Hospital, Republic iauliai Hospital, Republic Panev?ys Hospital.
"The TAILORx findings can spare thousands of women from getting toxic chemotherapy treatment that really wouldn't benefit them.
After three cycles of chemotherapy in the form of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin her alpha fetoprotein normalized to 31ng/ml but the pelvic mass progressively increased in size.
In December, Kulsoom Nawaz was shifted to Harley Street where doctors decided to treat her with fourth round of chemotherapy. Nawaz Sharif, Hassan Nawaz, Hussain Nawaz and Maryam Nawaz had visited her during that time.
Patients with histologically confirmed common malignancies., adult patients between 20-75 years of age and ECOG performance status of <2 were included in the study while patients with documented or suspected bone marrow infiltration by malignant cells, serious co morbid conditions, such as chronic renal failure or chronic liver disease or cardiac problems, patients who had received high dose chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplant, patients on concurrent chemo-radiation, patients who had previously received chemotherapy and patients with an active infection or receipt of an antibiotic in the 72 hrs before chemotherapy were excluded from the study.
"One approach would be to obtain a small amount of tumour tissue after a few doses of preoperative chemotherapy," he said.
The complete response rates were significantly higher in both acute phase (within 24 h after chemotherapy administration) and delayed phase (24-120 h after chemotherapy administration).
In this trial, patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, gastroesophageal junction, or the lower esophagus were randomly assigned to surgery alone or perioperative chemotherapy with surgery.
Chemotherapy administration: The concurrent and previous history of chemotherapy was recorded.
"The results suggest that the effects of immunotherapy might be enhanced if given after chemotherapy, potentially improving disease control in patients with advanced HGSC and other cancer types," wrote Dr.
Approximately 75% of people with cancer experience cognitive problems during treatment, and up to 35% of those who undergo systemic chemotherapy have reported cognitive changes or difficulties (Cancer.net, 2015).