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combine (kŏmˈbīn), agricultural machine that performs both harvesting and threshing operations. Although it was not widely used until the 1930s, the combine was in existence as early as 1830. Early combines were traction-powered and drawn by horses, or later, driven by steam and internal-combustion engines. Self-propelled units appeared in the 1940s and have been adopted worldwide. Modern units feature dust-free, air-conditioned cabs and can handle more than 100 acres (41 hectares) of grain per day. Originally developed for cereal grains, the combine has been adapted to legumes, forage grasses, sorghum, and corn. The basic operations of a combine include cutting and gathering the standing crop, threshing the seed from the stem, separating the chaff, collecting the seed in a hopper for delivery to a truck, and returning the straw to the ground. The combine has replaced the reaper; the binder, which cut and bound a harvested crop into bundles ready for threshing; and the thresher.


See C. Culpin, Farm Machinery (12th ed. 1992).

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Glue used in manufactured wood products, such as medium-density fiberboard (MDF), particleboard, and engineered lumber. Some binders are made with formaldehyde.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a machine for cutting the stalks of grain crops and tying them into sheaves.



any of a group of materials that cause cohesion of grains of silica sand or other fillers used in making foundry molds or cores. The binder ensures the necessary strength of the core or mold. The film of binder applied to the surface of the filler grains is hardened either by heating the mixture or by the action of external agents.

Binders fall into three classes: anhydrous organic binders (linseed oil, drying oil), hydrous organic binders (synthetic resins, sulfite residues [liquor], molasses), and hydrous inorganic binders (molten glass, cement, foundry clay). Binders can also be classified according to the type of hardening as those with irreversible hardening (drying oil, ethyl silicate, synthetic resins), intermediate hardening (sulfite residues [liquor], dextrin), and reversible hardening (rosin, foundry clay).

Binders with irreversible hardening produce mixtures that exhibit a tensile strength when dry of more than 0.5 meganewton per sq m (MN/m2), or 5 kilograms-force per sq cm, assuming 1 percent binder in the mixture. Binders with intermediate hardening produce mixtures with tensile strengths in the range 0.3–0.5 MN/m2, and mixtures made from binders with reversible hardening have strengths up to 0.3 MN/m2.


Kumanin, I. B., and A. M. Liass. Sviazuiushchie materialy dlia sterzhnei. Moscow, 1949.
Berg, P. P. Formovochnye materialy. Moscow, 1963.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A resin or other cementlike material used to hold particles together and provide mechanical strength or to ensure uniform consistency, solidification, or adhesion to a surface coating; typical binders are resin, glue, gum, and casein.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. A cementing material, either hydrated cement or a product of cement or lime and reactive siliceous material, for holding loose material together.
2. A component of an adhesive composition that is primarily responsible for the adhesive forces which hold two bodies together.
7. Any member which binds together components of a framing structure.

binding joist, binder

A beam which supports the common joists of a wood floor above and the ceiling joists below; commonly, joins two vertical posts.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. a tie, beam, or girder, used to support floor joists
2. the nonvolatile component of the organic media in which pigments are dispersed in paint
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


An earlier Microsoft Office workbook file that let users combine related documents from different Office applications. The documents could be viewed, saved, opened, emailed and printed as a group. Binder was an ActiveX Documents container, and Office applications were ActiveX Documents servers. The documents were ActiveX Documents objects, formerly known as DocObjects. Introduced with Office 97, Binder was dropped in Office XP. See ActiveX Documents.
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