synthesise and secrete PTH to correct or maintain normal blood calcium levels by sensing changes in serum calcium levels.
While most adenomas are composed of chief cells
, a small percentage may be oxyphilic (>90% oxyphils) and rare "water-clear" adenomas have also been described.
Primary chief cell
hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands: a new entity in the surgery of hyperparathyroidism.
A, Centrally located chief cells
with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm surrounded by peripherally located slender, spindled sustentacular cells forming a nested (Zellballen) pattern separated by a prominent vascular network.
Furthermore, in the untreated control group, the gastric mucosa is intact and no observed ulceration seen with foveolar, parietal, and chief cells
in normal conditions (Figure 3a).
Parietal cells are mitochondria-rich whereas chief cells
only show weak porin expression (Figures 6(b) and 6(f) and Figures 2(g), 2(h), and 2(i)).
These alterations were more notable in the small intestine and colon than stomach; however, the stomach showed the intensive nuclei in a blue color, supposedly because of migration of gastric chief cells
to the outer layer of the stomach lining.
The gastric glands occupied all the la- mina propria and consisted of mucous neck cells, parietal cells and chief cells
. The localization of these three kinds of cells varied between species (Ghoshal & Bal).
The chief cells
are distorted and shrunken and due to shrinkage, the pericellular spaces around these cells are very much increased.
In the new report, Mills, graduate student Greg Sibbel and Hans Clevers, MD, PhD, a geneticist at Utrecht Medical Centre, identified markers that show a small number of chief cells
become stem cells even in the absence of serious injury.
When chief cells
in our parathyroid glands sense that calcium in our blood is too low, parathyroid hormone is released, resulting in an increase of serum calcium through multiple means: receptor-mediated tubular reabsorption of calcium in the kidney, release of skeletal calcium stores, upregulation of 1-a-hydroxylase leading to increased 1,25-d hyd roxy-yitamin D production, and increased calcium reabsorption from the gastrointestinal tract!
The normal paraganglia consists of nests of chief cells
(type1) and sustentacular cells (type 2).