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the imperial Manchu dynasty that ruled in China from 1644 to 1912. The Manchu feudal lords established their power in China by conquest.

The reign of the Ch’ing Dynasty may be divided into four major periods. The first covers the years 1644 to 1683, from the Manchu invasion of China to the establishment of Ch’ing power throughout Taiwan and the area previously governed by the Ming Dynasty. The period embraces the reign of Shunchih and part of the reign of K’anghsi.

The second period, from the 1680’s to the 1770’s, was a time of internal consolidation and expansionist campaigns against, for example, the Dzungarian Khanate, Tibet, East Turkestan, Vietnam, Burma, Nepal, the Mongol principalities of Khalkha, and Russian settlements on the Amur. This period includes the second part of K’anghsi’s reign, the rule of Yungcheng, and the first part of Ch’ienlung’s reign.

The third period, from the 1770’s to the end of the 19th century, was marked by decay within the Ch’ing monarchy; the decay intensified in the mid-19th century as a result of the aggression of capitalist powers. This period covers the second part of Ch’ienlung’s reign, the rules of Chiach’ing, Taokuang, Hsienfen, and T’ungchih, and most of Kuang Hsu’s reign.

The fourth period extends from the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 to the abdication of the last Ch’ing emperor; during this period the process of the transformation of the Ch’ing Empire into a quasi colony of the imperialist powers was completed. As a result of the Hsinhai Revolution, the Ch’ing Dynasty was overthrown. The last Manchu emperor, P’u-i, officially abdicated on Feb. 12, 1912.


Novaia istoriia Kitaia. Moscow, 1972.
Man’chzhurskoe vladychestvo v Kitae (collection of articles). Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
Throughout her two years with Dillingham, Ching was in touch with executives at Alexander & Baldwin, where she had initially interviewed.
Ching was born May 21, 1876, on his father's farm in Prince Edward Island, Canada.
On his return to the farm, young Ching went out to pick potatoes with his father.
But his ambition from the start was to move across the border to the United States, a country for which Ching had developed an enormous admiration through his reading of Viscount James Bryce's 1888 classic, The American Commonwealth.
However, his enterprising spirit would quickly lift Ching out of that drudge detail.
Months before that date, while cars still were being fitted out, Ching went on his own time to the system's Charlestown yards and familiarized himself with the new equipment.
Bad luck overtook Ching 2 months after he assumed his broader responsibilities.
There was no workmen's compensation at that time, and Ching was dropped from the Boston El payroll the minute he entered the charity ward at the Boston municipal hospital.
Higher-ups in the company had by that time recognized that they had a good thing in Ching.
Over these years, Ching moved through a series of jobs, all of which kept him in close touch with the employees, and he sensed that low wages, lack of overtime pay, overtight schedules, and an utter lack of communication between management and workers were breeding dissatisfaction that could mean trouble for the company.
In Practicing the Tao Te Ching, Towler offers a powerful and quietly profound tool for journeyers who are drawn to this spiritual path.
Founded by Faith and Mike Ching in 1998 in Salt Lake County, Ching Farm Rescue & Sanctuary provides homes to farm animals in need as well as advocates for them thru education and adoption services.