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Related to chlamydiae: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlorobi


chlamydia (kləmĭdˈēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci, is transmitted to people by birds, particularly parrots, parakeets, and lovebirds. In birds the disease takes the form of an intestinal infection, but in people it runs the course of a viral pneumonia. Different forms of Chlamydia trachomatis cause trachoma, an infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids, and the sexually transmitted disease lymphogranuloma venereum. This same species also causes the sexually transmitted disease called chlamydia, the most common such disease in the United States. In women, chlamydia is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, which can result in infertility and an increased risk of tubal pregnancy. Men are the primary carriers, but painful urination and discharge often prompt men to get treatment before the testes can be infected and male infertility can result. Chlamydial infections can be treated with antibiotics such as tetracycline.
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A genus of bacteria with a growth cycle differing from that of all other microorganisms. Chlamydiae grow only in living cells and cannot be cultured on artificial media. Although capable of synthesizing macromolecules, they have no system for generating energy; the host cell's energy system fuels the chlamydial metabolic processes. The genome is relatively small; the genomes of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis have been completely sequenced.

The chlamydial infectious particle, called the elementary body, is round and about 350–450 nanometers in diameter. It enters a susceptible host cell and changes to a metabolically active and larger (approximately 800–1000 nm in diameter) reticulate body that divides by binary fission. The entire growth cycle occurs within a vacuole that segregates the chlamydia from the cytoplasm of the host cell. The reticulate bodies change back to elementary bodies, and then the cell lyses and the infectious particles are released. The growth cycle takes about 48 h.

Human diseases are caused by three species of Chlamydia. Chlamydia trachomatis is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and one of the most common. Infections occur in two distinct epidemiologic patterns. In many developing countries, C. trachomatis causes trachoma, a chronic follicular keratoconjunctivitis. It is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, affecting approximately 500 million people. In areas where this condition is highly endemic, virtually the entire population is infected within the first few years of life. Most active infections are found in childhood. By age 60, more than 20% of a population can be blinded as a result of trachoma. See Eye disorders

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen; an estimated 3–4 million cases occur each year in the United States, and there are close to 90 million worldwide. The most common manifestation is nongonococcal urethritis in males. The cervix is the most commonly infected site in women. Ascending infections can occur in either sex, resulting in epididymitis in males or endometritis and salpingitis in females. Chlamydial infection of the fallopian tube can cause late consequences such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy, even though the earlier infection is asymptomatic. The infant passing through the infected birth canal can acquire the infection and may develop either conjunctivitis or pneumonia. A more invasive form of C. trachomatis causes a systemic sexually transmitted disease called lymphogranuloma venereum. See Sexually transmitted diseases

Chlamydia psittaci is virtually ubiquitous among avian species and is a common pathogen among lower mammals. It is economically important in many countries as a cause of abortion in sheep, cattle, and goats. It causes considerable morbidity and mortality in poultry. Chlamydia psittaci can infect humans, causing the disease psittacosis. Psittacosis can occur as pneumonia or a febrile toxic disease without respiratory symptoms.

Chlamydia pneumoniae appears to be a human pathogen with no animal reservoir. It is of worldwide distribution and may be the most common human chlamydial infection. It appears to be an important cause of respiratory disease.

Azithromycin is the drug of choice for uncomplicated chlamydial infection of the genital tract. Two therapeutic agents require longer treatment regimens: doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is the first alternate treatment; erythromycin may be used for those who are tetracycline-intolerant, as well as for pregnant women or young children. See Medical bacteriology

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The single genus of the family Chlamydiaceae.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is of clinical importance that, under the selective pressure of beta-lactam antibiotics, interferon- gamma, or deprivation of nutrients such as iron and amino acids (e.g., tryptophan), most of chlamydiae can enter a persistent, metabolically inactive state that is refractory to current antibiotic treatment strategy.
Necrosis with programmed cell death features characterizes chlamydiae infection, but the mechanism has not been revealed.
VanNieuwenhze announced in October 2012 discovery of the first direct and universal approach for labeling peptidoglycan, one of the first places Kuru sought to put his new set of designer chemicals to work was against Chlamydiae.
Abundant in vitro data suggests that the inflammatory response to Chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected host cells including epithelial cells and resident macrophages [4].
Serological evidence that chlamydiae and mycoplasmas are involved in infertility of women.
In lysimeter samples, a few sequences were assigned to TM7, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae phyla.
Elucidation of the role that viruses or other microbes, such as chlamydiae, play in the pathogenesis of C-ALCL, via their interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is in the early stages.
Chlamydiae have a slow developmental cycle, which explains the insidious onset of chlamydial infection (Mgiga 2006).
A presenca dos corpos bacterianos aparentemente intactos no interior dos fagossomas macrofagicos sugere que essas bacterias tenham um mecanismo que evita que a vesicula endocitica se junte com o lisossoma, impedindo, dessa forma, a exposicao as enzimas lisossomais, semelhante ao que ocorre quando os macrofagos fagocitam Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi e algumas Chlamydiae (FRIEDMAN et al., 1980).
OIF/OEF Veterans (N = 347,750) Dermatophytosis (110) 14,387 Other Diseases Due to Viruses and Chlamydiae (78) 7,702 Herpes Simplex (054) 4,345 Dermatomycosis (111) 3,288 Other Venereal Diseases (099) 2,554 Viral Infections in Conditions Classified Elsewhere and Unspecified (079) 2,393 Bacterial Infections in Conditions Classified Elsewhere and of Unspecified Site (041) 2,046 Candidiasis (112) 1,696 Viral Hepatitis (070) 1,579 Streptococcal Sore Throat and Scarlet Fever (034) 840 * Hospitalization and outpatient visits recorded as of March 31, 2008.