chloramine


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Related to chloramine: chloramphenicol, chloramine T

chloramine:

see hydrazinehydrazine
, chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.
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Chloramine

 

any one of a group of chloroderivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines) or amines (organic chloramines), whose molecules contain a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen. (For a discussion of inorganic chloramines, seeNITROGEN CHLORIDE.)

Organic chloramines are liquids or solids, with a pungent odor that irritates the upper respiratory tract. They include the liquids N-chlorodimethylamine, (CH3)2NCl, which boils at 46°C, N,N-dichloromethylamine, CH3NCl2, which boils at 58°–60°C, and N,N-dichloroethylamine, C2H5NCl2, and N-chlorodiethylamine, (C2H5)2NCl, which boils at 91°C. Hexachloromelamine, whose structural formula is

is a yellow crystalline compound with a melting point of 149°C.

Chloramines decompose in the presence of water, including atmospheric moisture, with the formation of an amine and hypochlorous acid, HOCl. Solutions of chloramines in organic solvents are rather stable. Chloramines are produced by the action of chlorine or hypochlorous acid on amines and amine salts.

The term “chloramine” is often used to denote any N-chloro-derivative of the amides of organic and inorganic acids. Chloramides and dichloramides of aromatic sulfonic acids have found great practical use. Chloramine-B, C6H5SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of benzenesulfonic acid), and chloramine-T, (CH3)C6H4SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of p-toluenesulfonic acid), are colorless crystals with a melting point of 180°–185°C and 175°–180°C, respectively; they are readily soluble in water and ethanol. Dichloramine-B (N,N-dichloro-benzenesulfonamide) and dichloramine-T (N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) are crystals with an odor of chlorine and a melting point of 69°–72°C and 80°–83°C, respectively; they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, usually dichloroethane.

Chloramines have oxidizing and chlorinating properties and consequently are used in analytical chemistry and in industry, for example, in the textile industry to bleach fabrics; they are also used as decontaminants. In medicine, chloramines, mainly chloramine-B, are used as antiseptics. Chloramine-B, which contains 25–29 percent active chlorine, is also used as a deodorizer and spermatocide. A 0.25–0.5 percent solution of chloramine-B is used to disinfect hands, while a 1–5 percent solution of chloramine-B, chloramine-T, or dichloramine are used to decontaminate utensils and excretions of patients with intestinal and respiratory infections. Chloramines are also used for chlorination of water (Pantocid tablets), treatment of infected wounds, and decontamination of hands and nonmetallic equipment.

References in periodicals archive ?
Taurine chloramine inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-alpha gene expression in activated alveolar macrophages: decreased NF-kappaB activation and IkappaB kinase activity.
After two to three days of symptoms, it became apparent that chloramine was the culprit causing hemolysis.
Water chemistry tests indicated the presence of combined chlorine, including chloramines. HVAC systems, which play an important role in removing air contaminants, were poorly maintained and not operating properly.
When chloramines concentrate above the water surface, it can be challenging to maintain proper water chemistry.
The difference is that chlorine forms many byproducts, including trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA), where as chloramines forms a significantly lower amount of THMs and HAAs but also forms N-nitrosodimethyl amine (NDMA) (9).
Table 1: Signs and Symptoms of Possible Water Contaminant-Related Cause Sign or Symptom Possible Water Contaminant-Related Cause Anemia Aluminium, Chloramines, Copper, Zinc Bone disease Aluminium, Fluoride Hemolysis Chloramines, Copper, Nitrates Hypertension Calcium, Sodium Hypotension Bacteria, Endotoxin, Nitrates Metabolic acidosis Low pH, Sulphates Muscle weakness Bacteria, Calcium, Copper, Endotoxin, Low pH Nausea and vomiting Magnesium, Nitrates, Sulfates, Zinc Neurological Aluminium deterioration and encephalopathy Food and Drug Administration (1989)
Since there was no difference in the masses [m.sub.1], [m.sub.2], and [m.sub.3] for GI (control) and GIII (chloramine T), it was only possible to calculate the SA and SL for GII triclosan (SA = 1061.03 [micro]g/[mm.sub.3]) and solubility (SL = 1061.03 g/[mm.sub.3]).
The other problem is that urine contains nitrogen - like personal care products - which create chloramine," she said.
Further laboratory tests confirmed that ICM form iodo-DBPs in the presence of chlorine and chloramine, which are commonly used to treat drinking water.
The most common disinfectants for drinking water are chlorine gas, chloramines, and sodium hypochlorite/calcium hypochlorite.
When the gel and fluid are mixed in the syringe, the amino acids bind with chlorine and form chloramines at high pH.
Chloramine gas is created almost instantly when bleach and toilet cleaner are mixed.