chloramine


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Related to chloramine: chloramphenicol, chloramine T

chloramine:

see hydrazinehydrazine
, chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.
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Chloramine

 

any one of a group of chloroderivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines) or amines (organic chloramines), whose molecules contain a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen. (For a discussion of inorganic chloramines, seeNITROGEN CHLORIDE.)

Organic chloramines are liquids or solids, with a pungent odor that irritates the upper respiratory tract. They include the liquids N-chlorodimethylamine, (CH3)2NCl, which boils at 46°C, N,N-dichloromethylamine, CH3NCl2, which boils at 58°–60°C, and N,N-dichloroethylamine, C2H5NCl2, and N-chlorodiethylamine, (C2H5)2NCl, which boils at 91°C. Hexachloromelamine, whose structural formula is

is a yellow crystalline compound with a melting point of 149°C.

Chloramines decompose in the presence of water, including atmospheric moisture, with the formation of an amine and hypochlorous acid, HOCl. Solutions of chloramines in organic solvents are rather stable. Chloramines are produced by the action of chlorine or hypochlorous acid on amines and amine salts.

The term “chloramine” is often used to denote any N-chloro-derivative of the amides of organic and inorganic acids. Chloramides and dichloramides of aromatic sulfonic acids have found great practical use. Chloramine-B, C6H5SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of benzenesulfonic acid), and chloramine-T, (CH3)C6H4SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of p-toluenesulfonic acid), are colorless crystals with a melting point of 180°–185°C and 175°–180°C, respectively; they are readily soluble in water and ethanol. Dichloramine-B (N,N-dichloro-benzenesulfonamide) and dichloramine-T (N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) are crystals with an odor of chlorine and a melting point of 69°–72°C and 80°–83°C, respectively; they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, usually dichloroethane.

Chloramines have oxidizing and chlorinating properties and consequently are used in analytical chemistry and in industry, for example, in the textile industry to bleach fabrics; they are also used as decontaminants. In medicine, chloramines, mainly chloramine-B, are used as antiseptics. Chloramine-B, which contains 25–29 percent active chlorine, is also used as a deodorizer and spermatocide. A 0.25–0.5 percent solution of chloramine-B is used to disinfect hands, while a 1–5 percent solution of chloramine-B, chloramine-T, or dichloramine are used to decontaminate utensils and excretions of patients with intestinal and respiratory infections. Chloramines are also used for chlorination of water (Pantocid tablets), treatment of infected wounds, and decontamination of hands and nonmetallic equipment.

References in periodicals archive ?
Water chemistry tests indicated the presence of combined chlorine, including chloramines.
A chlorine-type odor indicates chloramines are present in a space.
International guidelines for drinking water quality suggest that no effects have been associated with chloramines in chloraminated water, but it should be removed prior to processing drinking water; using either reverse osmosis membrane system, granular-activated carbon treatment or adding ascorbic acid; in spite of the excess of chloramine excreted in the human urine (9).
Table 1: Signs and Symptoms of Possible Water Contaminant-Related Cause Sign or Symptom Possible Water Contaminant-Related Cause Anemia Aluminium, Chloramines, Copper, Zinc Bone disease Aluminium, Fluoride Hemolysis Chloramines, Copper, Nitrates Hypertension Calcium, Sodium Hypotension Bacteria, Endotoxin, Nitrates Metabolic acidosis Low pH, Sulphates Muscle weakness Bacteria, Calcium, Copper, Endotoxin, Low pH Nausea and vomiting Magnesium, Nitrates, Sulfates, Zinc Neurological Aluminium deterioration and encephalopathy Food and Drug Administration (1989)
1 M Glutamic Endoprotein- butyric Acid/ Papain acid glycine Leucine/Lysine and Chloramines 0.
Research has also proposed that a cause-effect relationship has been established between the presence of chloramines in the air of the indoor swimming pools and the increased occurrence of asthma, irritant eye, nasal and throat symptoms in swimming instructors and lifeguards (Massin 1998) (Levesque 2006) (Jacobs, et al.
Chloramine contamination of hemodialysis water supplies, FDA Safety Alert,
The water quality had been poorly managed, chloramine levels were high and the air exhaust had been turned off to save heat.
According to the company, as water treatment facilities change from free chlorine to chloramine as a primary means of disinfecting potable water, it is increasingly important to ensure that seals for water applications are chloramine resistant to ensure long seal life, and reduce warranty issues caused by premature seal failure.
However, byproducts of chlorine disinfection can be carcinogenic, so nearly a third of the nation's waterworks have switched to a disinfectant called chloramine.
The CDC has become interested in the concept of chloramine destruction by UV as a means of controlling air quality.